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Voting Registration & Eligibility Absentee/Mailed Ballots In-Person Voting
Jurisdiction Election Oversight Automatic Voter Registration Deadlines for Voter Registration Felony Conviction Disenfranchisement All-Mail Voting Criteria to Vote Absentee Deadlines to Request Absentee Ballot Identification & Signature/Witness Requirements for Absentee Ballots Deadlines to Return Absentee Ballot Ballot Drop Boxes Early Voting Period Election Day Voting Hours Identification Requirements for In-Person Voting Electioneering Rules
Alabama

The Secretary of State is the chief elections official in Alabama and is required to provide uniform guidance for election activities.

Alabama Code Title 17. Elections § 17-1-3

No, Alabama does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Alabama does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than 15 days before the election.c

Ala. Code § 17-3-50 (2019)

In Alabama, a person convicted of a felony that is not a "crime of moral turpitude" never lose their right to vote, even while they are incarcerated.

Individuals convicted of a felony listed as one of the 46 crimes of "moral turpitude" lose their voting rights. However, rights can be restored by applying for a pardon or a Certificate of Eligibility to Register to Vote (CERV) with the Board of Pardons and Paroles.

Ala. Code § 17-3-31 (2019).

No, Alabama does not conduct all-mail elections.

Alabama requires an excuse for not voting on election day in order to request an absentee ballot.

Alabama provides an elector may request an absentee ballot for any of the following reasons:

  1. The person expects to be out of the county or the state, or the municipality for municipal elections, on election day.
  2. The person has any physical illness or infirmity which prevents his or her attendance at the polls, whether he or she is within or without the county on the day of the election.
  3. The person expects to work a shift which has at least 10 hours which coincide with the hours the polls are open at his or her regular polling place.
  4. The person is enrolled as a student at an educational institution located outside the county of his or her personal residence, attendance at which prevents his or her attendance at the polls.
  5. The person is a member of, or spouse or dependent of a member of, the Armed Forces of the United States or is similarly qualified to vote absentee pursuant to the federal Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act, 42 U.S.C. 1973ff.
  6. The person has been appointed as an election officer or named as a poll watcher at a polling place other than his or her regular polling place.
  7. The person is a caregiver for a family member to the second degree of kinship by affinity or consanguinity and the family member is confined to his or her home.
  8. The person is incarcerated in prison or jail and has not been convicted of a felony involving moral turpitude.

Ala. Code § 17-11-3 (2019)

In Alabama, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person or by mail no later than 5 days before the election. Alabama does not accept absentee ballot applications online.

Ala. Code § 17-11-3 (2019).

Alabama requires a copy of voter identification and a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

An application for an absentee ballot must be signed by the applicant. Additionally, either two witnesses older than 18 or a notary public must sign the envelope.

Ala. Code §§ 17-11-4, 17-9-30(b), 17-11-7 (2019).

Absentee ballots must be postmarked by the day before the election and must be received by noon on the day of the election. Alabama does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Ala. Code § 17-11-18 (2019).

Alabama does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

Alabama provides "in-person absentee" voting before election day at absentee election manager offices. Only electors with a proper excuse may request their absentee ballot and cast their in-person absentee ballots at their local absentee ballot office during regular business hours. The in-person absentee period begins 55 days before the election and ends at 5:00 pm on the day before the election.

Ala. Code § 17-11-5 (2019).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 7:00 pm (12 hours).

Ala. Code § 17-9-6 (2019).

Alabama requires voters to provide personal identification with a photo before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • Valid Alabama driver's license or non-driver ID card
  • Valid photo voter ID card or other valid ID card issued by any state or the federal government , as long as it contains a photo
  • Valid U.S. passport
  • Valid government employee ID card with a photo
  • Valid student or employee ID card issued by a college or university in the state, provided it includes a photo
  • Valid U.S. military ID card containing a photo
  • Valid tribal ID card containing a photo

A voter without a required ID may vote a provisional ballot or vote a regular ballot if the individual is identified by two election officials as an eligible voter on the poll list, and both election workers sign a sworn affidavit so stating. If voting a provisional ballot, the voter has until 5:00 pm on the Friday after the election to bring the required ID.

Alabama's voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

Ala. Code § 17-9-30 (2019).

Except as electors are admitted to vote and persons to assist them as herein provided, and except for the judge of probate, the sheriff, or his or her deputy, the precinct election officials, and watchers, no person shall be permitted within 30 feet of the door of the building of the polling place.

Ala. Code § 17-5-2; § 17-9-50.

Alaska

The Lieutenant Governor is an elected position and Alaska's primary election officer for statewide ballots and elections.

AS 15.10.105

Yes, Alaska implemented an automatic voter registration system in 2017 via ballot measure. Eligible voters in Alaska are automatically registered to vote in the state when they complete a permanent fund dividend (PFD) application. PFD applicants will be notified of the automatic voter registration and may choose to opt-out of the voter registration.

Alaska Stat. §§ 15.07.050, 43.23.015 (2020).

Alaska does not offer same day or election day voter registration for most elections. However, Alaska allows same day registration only to vote for president and vice president.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than 30 days before the election.

Alaska Stat. § 15.07.070 (2021); Alaska Division of Elections - Voting in a Presidential Election (last accessed Apr. 17, 2021).

In Alaska, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their full sentence, including prison time, parole, and probation.

Alaska Stat. § 15.05.030 (2021).

No, Alaska does not conduct all-mail elections.

Alaska allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any registered voter may vote at any election by absentee ballot. A person wishing to vote absentee must request a ballot first.

Alaska Stat. § 15.20.010.

In Alaska, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person, online, or by mail no later than 10 days before the election.

Alaska Admin. Code tit. 6, § 25.505 (2021).

Alaska does not require a copy of voter identification but does require a signature of a witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

An attesting signature is needed by a witness older than 18 or an official authorized to administer oaths.

Alaska Admin. Code tit. 6, § 25.505 (2021).

Absentee ballots must be postmarked by election day and received by 10 days after election day.

Alaska Admin. Code tit. 6, § 25.145 (2021).

Alaska does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

Early in-person voting begins 15 days before an election and ends on the day before an election.

Alaska Admin. Code tit. 6, § 25.590 (2021).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 8:00 pm (13 hours).

Alaska Stat. § 15.15.080 (2021).

Alaska requires voters to provide personal identification with a photo before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • an official voter registration card,
  • a drivers license,
  • birth certificate,
  • hunting license,
  • US passport, or
  • a current utility bill, bank statement, paycheck, government check or other government document with the voter’s name and address.

Photo ID is requested but not required, an election official may waive the identification requirement if the election official knows the identity of the voter. A voter who cannot exhibit a required form of identification shall be allowed to vote a questioned ballot.

Alaska's voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

Alaska Stat. § 15.15.225 (2021).

During the hours the polls are open, a person who is in the polling place or within 200 feet of any entrance to the polling place may not attempt to persuade a person to vote for or against a candidate, proposition, or question. The election officials shall post warning notices at the required distance in the form and manner prescribed by the director.

Alaska Stat. § 15.15.170 (2021).

Arizona

The Secretary of State is an elected position and is the chief election officer in the state of Arizona, which includes oversight of campaign finance for statewide and legislative candidates, verifying initiatives and referenda for the ballot, and certifying the official results of each election.

The County Recorder is an elected position and administers early voting, including mailing out early ballots and providing on-site early voting locations. The County Recorder's Office also verifies voter signatures on early ballot affidavits and petitions (when required by law).

The Board of Supervisors must set the compensation of poll workers, which constitutes a county charge.

A.R.S. § 16-550, A.R.S. § 16-536, A.R.S. § 16-552.

No, Arizona does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Arizona does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be submitted online or in person no later than 29 days before the election (or on the next immediate business day if the deadline falls on a legal holiday or weekend).

If sent by mail, the application must either be (1) postmarked 29 days or more before an election and is received by the county recorder by 7:00 p.m. on the day of that election; or dated 29 days or more before an election and is received by the county recorder by first class mail within 5 days after the last day to register to vote in that election.

Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 16-120, 16-134, 16-103 (2021).

In Arizona, a person convicted of a single felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their full sentence, including prison time, parole, probation, and payment of any fine or restitution.

A person convicted of multiple felonies loses voting rights and cannot regain the right to vote unless restored by a judge or if pardoned.

Ariz. Rev. Stat. §§ 16-101, 13-907 (2021); Ariz. Const. art. VII, § 2.

No, Arizona does not conduct all-mail elections.

Arizona allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any registered Arizona voter may apply for an absentee ballot and vote by mail. Any election called shall provide for early voting. Any qualified elector may vote by early ballot.

Ariz. Rev. Stat. §§ 16-541, 16-103 (2020).

In Arizona, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person, online, or by mail no later than 11 days before the election.

Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 16-542 (2021).

Arizona does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Absentee ballots include an affidavit that must be signed by the voter under penalty of perjury.

Ariz. Rev. Stat. §§ 16-547, 16-550, 16-552 (2021).

Absentee ballots must be received by 7:00 pm on the day of the election. Arizona does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 16-547 (2021).

Arizona counties or municipalities may establish one or more ballot drop boxes at a location outside of polling places where voters can drop off absentee/mail ballots in sealed and signed envelopes.

Ballot drop-off locations and drop-boxes shall be locked and covered or otherwise made unavailable to the public until the 27th day prior to an election to ensure that no ballots or any other materials may be deposited before the early voting period begins.

A ballot drop-off location or drop-box shall be located in a secure location. All ballot drop-off locations and drop-boxes shall be approved by the Board of Supervisors (or designee). An unstaffed drop-box placed outdoors shall be securely fastened in a manner to prevent moving or tampering.

Ariz. Rev. Stat. §§ 16-548, 16-550, 16-579, 16-584 (2021); Arizona Secretary of State, Elections Procedures Manual (2019).

Arizona provides in-person early voting to all eligible voters before election day. The early voting period begins 27 days before the election and ends at 5:00 pm the Friday before the election (24 days).

Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 16-541, § 16-542 (2021).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 6:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. (13 hours).

Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 16-565 (2021).

Arizona requires all voters to provide personal identification before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

(1) A valid form of identification that bears the photograph, name, and address of the elector that reasonably appear to be the same as the name and address in the precinct register, including

  • an Arizona driver license,
  • an Arizona nonoperating identification license,
  • a tribal enrollment card or other form of tribal identification or
  • a United States federal, state, or local government-issued identification.

(2) Two different items that contain the name and address of the elector that reasonably appear to be the same as the name and address in the precinct register, including

  • a utility bill,
  • a bank or credit union statement that is dated within ninety days of the date of the election,
  • a valid Arizona vehicle registration,
  • an Arizona vehicle insurance card,
  • an Indian census card, tribal enrollment card or other form of tribal identification,
  • a property tax statement, a recorder's certificate, a voter registration card,
  • a valid United States federal, state, or local government-issued identification, or
  • any mailing that is labeled as "official election material".

(3) A valid form of identification that bears the photograph, name, and address of the elector except that if the address on the identification does not reasonably appear to be the same as the address in the precinct register or the identification is a valid United States military identification card or a valid United States passport and does not bear an address, the identification must be accompanied by one of the items listed in subdivision (2) above.

Identification is deemed valid unless it can be determined on its face that it has expired.

An elector who does not provide the required identification shall receive a provisional ballot. Provisional ballots are counted only if the elector provides identification to the county recorder by 5:00 p.m. on the 5th business day after a general election that includes an election for federal office, or by 5:00 p.m. on the 3rd business day after any other election.

Arizona's voter ID requirements are considered "strict" because voters without acceptable identification must vote on a provisional ballot and also take additional steps after election day for it to be counted.

Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 16-579 (2021).

No electioneering may take place within 75 feet of a voting location. Additionally, no electioneering may take place outside the 75-foot limit if it is audible from a location inside the door to the voting location. The 75-foot limit is measured from the main outside entrance of the voting location.

“Electioneering” occurs when a person knowingly, intentionally, and verbally expresses support for, or opposition to, a candidate or ballot measure on the ballot in that election, or a political party with one or more candidates who appear on the ballot in that election, in order to induce or compel another person to vote in a particular manner or to refrain from voting.

The electioneering ban applies to the election board, other election officials, political party observers, and any voter within the 75-foot limit.

Though voters or voters’ assistants are permitted to wear clothing with political messages, election board members, other election officials, or political party observers may not wear, carry, or display any materials that identify or express support or opposition for a political party, political organization, or a candidate or ballot measure appearing on the ballot.

Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 16-515 (2021).

Arkansas

The Secretary of State is designated as the chief election official.

Arkansas Constitution of 1874 Amendment 51, § 5

No, Arkansas does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Arkansas does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked or in person no later than 30 days before the election. If this falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday, then on the next day which is not a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday.

Arkansas does not offer an online registration form, you must fill out a paper voter registration application.

Ark. Const. amend. LI, § 9; Arkansas Secretary of State, Voter Registration Information (last accessed Apr. 16, 2021) ("How Do I Register to Vote? - You must fill out a paper Voter Registration Application.").

In Arkansas, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their full sentence, including prison time, parole, probation, and paid all fees and fines.

Ark. Const. amend. 51, § 11.

No, Arkansas does not conduct all-mail elections.

Resolution No. 4 of 2020; In the Matter of: Absentee Voting Procedures

Arkansas requires an excuse for not voting on election day in order to request an absentee ballot.

You may vote by absentee ballot in Arkansas if:

  • You will be unavoidably absent from your polling site on Election Day.
  • You will be unable to attend your polling site on Election Day due to illness or physical disability.
  • You are a member of the U.S. armed forces, merchant marines or the spouse or a dependent family member.
  • You are a U.S. citizen whose permanent residence is in Arkansas but who is temporarily living outside the United States.

Ark. Code. Ann. § 7-5-404 (2019)

In Arkansas, applications for absentee ballots must be received no later than 7 days before the election.

Effective July 15, 2021, HB 1715 (2021), if the signatures on the absentee ballot application and the voter registration application record are not similar, the county clerk shall not provide an absentee ballot to the voter.

Ark. Code Ann. § 7-5-404 (2021).

Arkansas requires a copy of voter identification but does not require a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

A voter statement, current and valid identification, and a signature must be included with an absentee ballot.

Effective Apr. 29, 2021, (AR SB 643 (2021)) Arkansas will require signatures on absentee ballots to be compared and match the signatures on voters’ original registration certificates.

Ark. Code Ann. § 7-5-409 (2021).

Absentee ballots must be received by 7:30 pm on the day of the election if sent by mail and, effective July 27, 2021, SB 643 (2021), by the Firday before the election for hand-delivered ballots. Arkansas does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Before the 2021 law, the deadline for receiving hand-delivered absentee ballots was 7:30 pm on the day of the election.

Ark. Code Ann. § 7-5-411 (2021).

Arkansas does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

Arkansas provides in-person early voting to all eligible voters before election day. The early voting period begins 15 days before the election and ends at 5:00 pm on Monday before the election (15 days).

Ark. Code Ann. § 7-5-418 (2021).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:30 am to 7:30 pm (12 hours).

Arkansas Secretary of State, Voter Registration Information (2021).

Arkansas requires voters to provide personal identification with a photo before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • A driver's license;
  • A photo identification card;
  • A concealed handgun carry license;
  • A United States passport;
  • An employee badge or identification document issued by an accredited postsecondary educational institution in the State of Arkansas;
  • A United States military identification document;
  • A public assistance identification card if the card shows a photograph of the person to whom the document or identification card was issued; and
  • A voter verification card under Arkansas Code § 7-5-324 .

A voter who did not present a required document or identification card may cast a provisional ballot accompanied by a sworn statement that the voter is registered to vote in the state and that he or she is the person registered to vote. The provisional ballot will be counted if: the county board of election commissioners does not determine that the provisional ballot is invalid and should not be counted based on other grounds; or the voter returns to the county board of election commissioners or the county clerk by noon on the Monday following the election and presents a document or identification card that meets the requirements.

Arkansas' voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

Ark. Const. amend LI, § 13.

On early voting days and election day, a person shall not do any electioneering during voting hours in a building in which voting is taking place; within 100 feet of the primary exterior entrance used by voters to a building in which voting is taking place; or with persons standing in line to vote.

Under SB 486 (2021), effective 90 days after the legislature adjourns sine die in 2021, people are prohibited from entering or remaining in an area within 100 feet of the primary exterior entrance to a building where voting is taking place, except for a person entering or leaving the building for "lawful purposes."

Electioneering includes:

  • Handing out, distributing, or offering to hand out or distribute campaign literature or literature regarding a candidate, issue, or measure on the ballot;
  • Soliciting signatures on a petition;
  • Soliciting contributions for a charitable or other purpose;
  • Displaying a candidate's name, likeness, or logo;
  • Displaying a ballot measure's number, title, subject, or logo;
  • Displaying or dissemination of buttons, hats, pencils, pens, shirts, signs, or stickers containing electioneering information; and
  • Disseminating audible electioneering information.

Ark. Code Ann. § 7-1-103 (2021).

California

The California Secretary of State is a statewide elected position and the state's chief election officer.

At the local level, a single county election official is responsible for overseeing county-wide elections. This position is normally elected or appointed.

Yes, California implemented an automatic voter registration system in 2018 via legislation. Eligible voters in California are automatically registered to vote in the state when they complete a license application with the California Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV). DMV customers may choose to opt-out of the automatic registration during the transaction with the DMV.

Cal. Elec. Code §§ 2260, et seq. (2015).

California offers election day voter registration. If the 15-day voter registration deadline has passed, eligible voters may cast a provisional ballot under a "conditional voter registration." The provisional ballot will be counted when the county elections official verifies the voter registration.

Otherwise, California's deadline to register to vote whether in person, by mail, or online is 15 days before election day. Residents voting by mail must have their applications postmarked 15 days before election day.

Cal. Elec. Code § 2170 (2012).

In California, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their prison time and parole.

Cal. A.B. 2466 (2016).

No, California does not conduct all-mail elections.

California allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any registered California voter may apply for an absentee ballot and vote by mail.

Cal. Elec. Code § 3003 (2008).

In California, applications for absentee ballots must be received no later than 7 days before the election. Within 7 days of election day, voters will need to apply in person for a vote-by-mail ballot for that election.

Cal. Elec. Code § 3001 (2020).

California does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

California election officials compare signatures on the identification envelope with the signature appearing on the voter's affidavit of registration.

Cal. Elec. Code § 3019 (2007).

Absentee ballots must be postmarked by election day and received no later than 17 days after the election.

Cal. Elec. Code § 3020 (2020).

California county elections official may establish one or more ballot drop boxes at a location outside of polling places where voters can drop off absentee/mail ballots in sealed and signed envelopes.

California defines a ballot drop box as "a secure receptacle established by a county or city and county elections official whereby a voted vote by mail ballot may be returned to the elections official from whom it was obtained.”

Ballot drop boxes may be staffed or unstaffed. Must be clearly labeled "Official Ballot Drop Box". Must meet accessibility requirements. Drop boxes must include voter information phone numbers, rules about vote tampering clearly printed on it, and constructed to withstand vandalism.

The county elections official shall publicly announce the locations of drop-off locations and drop boxes at least 30 days prior to the election. The announcement must include the days and estimated times a particular staffed drop box will be available.

County election officials must determine the number and location of ballot drop boxes and submit the information to the Secretary of State at least 30 days before the election.

Cal. Elec. Code §§ 3025, 20132, 20133, 20134, 20135, 20136, 20137 (2021).

California provides in-person early voting to all eligible voters before election day. The early voting period begins 29 days before the election and ends the day before the election (28 days).

County election officials' satellite offices serve as early voting locations as determined by county elections staff. Specific hours and days vary from county to county.

Cal. Elec. Code §§ 3001, 3018 (2007).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m (13 hours).

Any voter who is in line when the poll closes at 8:00 p.m. is allowed to vote. No voters who arrive after the polls are closed may cast votes.

Cal. Elec. Code §§ 10242, 14212, 14214 (2020).

California does not require registered voters to present identification documents at the polls. Before casting a ballot, voters must state their name and address and record their name and address in the poll book.

Cal. Elec. Code §14216 (2012).

No person, on election day, or at any time that a voter may be casting a ballot, shall, within 100 feet of a polling place perform any of the following:

  • circulate an initiative, referendum, recall, or nomination petition or any other petition;
  • solicit a vote or speak to a voter on the subject of marking his or her ballot;
  • place a sign relating to voters' qualifications or speak to a voter on the subject of his or her qualifications.
  • do any electioneering.

"Electioneering" means the visible display or audible dissemination of information that advocates for or against any candidate or measure on the ballot within 100 feet of a polling place.

Prohibited electioneering information includes, but is not limited to, any of the following:

  • a display of a candidate's name, likeness, or logo;
  • a display of a ballot measure's number, title, subject, or logo;
  • buttons, hats, pencils, pens, shirts, signs, or stickers containing electioneering information;
  • dissemination of audible electioneering information.

Cal. Elec. Code § 319.5, 18370 (2010).

Colorado

The Colorado Secretary of State is vested with the authority to oversee state elections.

C.R.S.A. § 1-1.5-104

Yes, Colorado implemented an automatic voter registration system in 2020 via legislation. Eligible voters in Colorado are automatically registered to vote in the state when they interacts with certain agencies, such as the DMV.

The elector’s county clerk will verify if they have a complete record to register the individual to vote. If the elector’s record is complete, the county clerk will send a notice to the elector that they are registered to vote. The elector can return the notice to either decline to be registered or to affiliate with a party. If the elector does not decline to be registered within 20 days after the notice is mailed and the form is not returned as undeliverable, the elector is then registered to vote.

Additionally, Colorado residents who are 16 years old, otherwise qualified to register, and will not turn 18 by the next election are allowed to pre-register to vote. When they turn 18, they will be automatically registered.

Colo. Rev. Stat. § 1-2-213.3 (2021).

Colorado offers same day and election day voter registration by appearing in-person at a polling station during the early voting period or on election day.

Otherwise, voters submitting a mailed voter registration application through the mail or in-person at a designated state agency must be registered no later than 8 days before the election, unless that day is a Saturday or a Sunday or other legal holiday, in which case the voter is allowed one additional day after the ending of the weekend or holiday.

Voters working through a registration drive must be registered no later than 22 days before the election.

Colo. Rev. Stat. § 1-2-201 (2020).

In Colorado, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of prison time.

Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 1-2-103, 1-2-606 (2020).

Yes, Colorado conducts all-mail elections.

The county clerk and recorder or designated election official for the political subdivision shall conduct the election by mail ballot; except that votes cast at voter service and polling centers may be by paper ballots or by electronic or electromechanical voting systems.

Colo. Rev. Stat. § 1-5-401 (2020).

Colorado conducts all-mail elections, which means voters do not need to request a ballot, and instead automatically receive one. Therefore, the state allows no-excuse absentee voting.

All eligible voters are allowed to cast an absentee vote. State law also provides for a voter to apply for permanent absentee voter status. No criteria must be met to qualify as either an absentee voter or a permanent absentee voter.

Colo. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 1-13.5-1001, -1003 (2020).

Colorado, conducts all-mail elections, which means voters do not need to request a ballot, and instead automatically receive one. Changes of address requests must be received no later than the close of business on the Tuesday immediately preceding the election (7 days).

Colo. Rev. Stat. § 1-13.5-1002 (2020).

Colorado does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot. Absentee votes must be signed.

Colorado conducts all-mail elections, which means voters do not need to request a ballot, and instead automatically receive one.

Colo. Rev. Stat. § 1-13.5-1009 (2020).

Absentee ballots must be received by 7:00 pm on the day of the election. Colorado does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Colo. Rev. Stat. § 1-13.5-1006 (2020).

Colorado requires that counties make ballot drop boxes available. Counties are required to designate drop box locations, but state law provides a minimum level of boxes based on the number of voters in the county. Larger counties must have at least one drop box for every 12,500 active electors and smaller counties must have at least one box. Otherwise, counties must have at least one drop box for every 30,000 registered voters in the county.

Counties are given discretion about where to place these drop boxes but are encouraged to establish drop boxes in community-based locations. County election officials must locate the drop boxes “in a manner that provides the greatest convenience to electors.”

Drop boxes must be adequately lit and monitored by either an election official or video security surveillance system. Ballots must be collected in a locked container, and the drop boxes must contain signage about ballot collection and electioneering.

Colo. Rev. Stat. § 1-5-102.9 (2020).

Colorado conducts all-mail elections with early in-person voting options, which means voters will automatically receive a ballot to return by mail or drop off in-person at voting centers beginning 15 days before the election (may vary by county).

Colo. Rev. Stat. § 1-7.5-107.2 (2020).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m (12 hours). Poll times apply to those who chose to vote in person on election day, since Colorado is an all-mail voting state.

Colo. Rev. Stat. § 1-7-101 (2020).

Colorado requires voters to provide personal identification before voting at the polls. Colorado holds all elections by mail, so this law impacts only voters who choose to vote in person on election day.

Valid forms of identification include state-issued IDs or licenses, utility bills, bank statement, birth certificate, or other government document that shows the name and address of the elector.

An eligible elector who is unable to produce identification may cast a provisional ballot. The designated election official shall attempt to verify that an elector who cast a provisional ballot is eligible to vote. The designated election official or designee shall complete the preliminary verification of the elector's eligibility to vote before the ballot is counted.

Colorado's voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 1-7-110, 1-1-104 (2020).

Electioneering is prohibited within 100 feet of a poll location

"Electioneering" is defined under state law as campaigning for or against any candidate who is on the ballot or any ballot issue or ballot question that is on the ballot or soliciting signatures for a candidate petition, a recall petition, or a petition to place a ballot issue or ballot question on a subsequent ballot.

Colo. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 1-13-714 (2020).

Connecticut

Secretary of State is an elected position in Connecticut. As Commissioner of Elections for the State of Connecticut, the Secretary is charged with administering, interpreting, and implementing election laws and ensuring fair and impartial elections.

C.G.S.A. § 9-3

Yes, Connecticut implemented an automatic voter registration system in 2018 via an agreement between the Secretary of State and the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV). Eligible voters in Connecticut are automatically registered to vote in the state when they complete a license application with the DMV. DMV customers may choose to opt-out of the automatic registration during the transaction with the DMV.

Note that Connecticut's automatic voter registration system has yet to be codified in statute and is only administered through the administrative agreement.

Office of the Secretary of the State, State of Connecticut - Memorandum of Understanding Between the Office of the Secretary of the State of Connecticut and the Connecticut Department of Motor Vehicles Regarding the Execution of the National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (May 16, 2016).

Connecticut offers same day and election day voter registration (not offered for primary elections) by appearing in person at the designated location in each town (not at precinct polling places). Proof of identity and residency is required and the applicant must, under oath, declare they have not voted previously in the election.

Otherwise, general election applications must be postmarked or received by a voter registration agency 7 days before an election.

Conn. Gen. Stat. § 9-19b (2015).

In Connecticut, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their prison time and parole and paying applicable fines.

Colo. Rev. Stat. § 9-46a (2020).

No, Connecticut does not conduct all-mail elections.

Connecticut requires an excuse for not voting on election day in order to request an absentee ballot.

Voters are eligible for absentee ballots for the following reasons:

  • they are in active service in the U.S. armed forces;
  • they are absent from town during all the hours of voting;
  • due to illness;
  • due to physical disability;
  • if his or her religion forbids secular activity on that day; or due to his or her required performance of duties as a primary, referendum, or election official at a polling place other than his or her own during all the hours on that day.

Conn. Gen. Stat. § 9-135 (2012).

In Connecticut, applications for absentee ballots must be received no later than 1 day before the election. For an emergency ballot within 6 days of an election, voters should use the Emergency Application for Absentee Ballot.

Conn. Gen. Stat. § 9-140 (2011).

Connecticut does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Each absentee ballot requires a signature in a sealed inner envelope.

Conn. Gen. Stat. § 9-137 (1986).

Absentee ballots must be received by the time the polls close on the day of the election. Connecticut does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Conn. Gen. Stat. § 9-140b (2004).

Connecticut, generally, does not permit ballot drop boxes.

However, the state allowed the use of drop boxes temporarily during the 2020 election due to the COVID-19 pandemic emergency.

Governor of Connecticut, Executive Order 7QQ (2020).

Connecticut does not offer in-person voting before election day.

However, the Connecticut Legislature passed a constitutional amendment in two consecutive legislative sessions (HJ 59 (2021)) that now must be approved by voters in a 2022 ballot measure in order to be enacted. The measure would amend the Connecticut Constitution to allow the legislature to implement an early voting period in the state.

On election day, polls are open for voting from 6:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m (14 hours).

No elector shall be permitted to cast his vote after the hour prescribed for the closing of the polls in any election unless such elector is in line at 8:00 p.m.

Conn. Gen. Stat. § 9-174 (2020).

Connecticut requires voters to provide personal identification before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • Social Security card;
  • Any other preprinted form of identification that shows the elector's name and either the elector's address, signature, or photograph.

If the elector does not have valid identification, they will, on a form prescribed by the secretary of the state, write their residential address and date of birth, print the elector's name, and sign a statement under penalty of false statement that the elector is the elector whose name appears on the official checklist.

Connecticut's voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

Conn. Gen. Stat. § 9-261 (2014).

On the day of any primary, referendum or election, no person shall solicit on behalf of or in opposition to the candidacy of another or himself or on behalf of or in opposition to any question being submitted at the election or referendum, or loiter or peddle or offer any advertising matter, ballot or circular to another person within a radius of 75 feet of any outside entrance in use as an entry to any polling place or in any corridor, passageway or other approach leading from any such outside entrance to such polling place or in any room opening upon any such corridor, passageway or approach.

Conn. Gen. Stat. § 9-236 (2011).

Delaware

The State Board of Elections is composed of 10 members appointed by the Governor. Five members are Democrats and 5 members are Republican. Board meetings are open to the public. The State Election Commissioner is an ex officio member of the Board and can vote to break ties.

The State Election Commissioner is appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the State Senate for a term of 4 years. The Commissioner is an ex officio member of the State Board of Elections, attends all State Board of Elections meetings; provides general supervision to the Department of Elections; develops regulations, policies, procedures, and guidelines; investigates violations of the State's Campaign Finance law; is responsible for the security of records in the Commissioner's office; and collects and reports election results.

The Department of Elections offices in each county are managed by a County Director and Deputy County Director who are appointed by the State Board of Elections. The offices conduct elections, register voters, and educate voters.

DE Elec. Law § § 302

No, Delaware does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Delaware does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than the 4th Saturday before the election (25 days).

Del. Code tit. 15, § 2036 (2014).

In Delaware, a person convicted of a felony that is not a "disqualifying felony" loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their full sentence, including prison time, parole, and probation.

A person convicted of a "disqualifying felony" (e.g., murder, bribery, sexual offenses) loses voting rights and cannot regain the right to vote unless restored by a formal pardon from the governor.

Del. Const., art. 5, § 2; Del. Code tit. 15, § 6103 (2014).

No, Delaware does not conduct all-mail voting.

Delaware requires an excuse for not voting on election day in order to request an absentee ballot.

Any qualified elector may cast the qualified elector’s vote by absentee ballot if the elector is unable to appear at the polling place of the elector’s election district due to the following reasons:

  • Because such person is in the public service of the United States or of this State, or is a citizen of the United States temporarily residing outside the territorial limits of the United States and the District of Columbia, or such person’s spouse or dependents when residing with or accompanying the person, or is absent from this State because of illness or injury received while serving in the armed forces of the United States; or

  • Because such person is in the armed forces of the United States or the merchant marine of the United States, or attached to and serving with the armed forces of the United States in the American Red Cross or United Service Organizations; or

  • Because of the nature of such person’s business or occupation, including the business or occupation of providing care to his or her parent, spouse, or child who is living at home and requires constant care due to illness, disability, or injury; or

  • Because such person is sick or physically disabled; or

  • Because such person is absent from the district while on vacation; or

  • Because such person is unable to vote at a certain time or on a certain day due to the tenets or teachings of that person’s religion; or

  • Because such person is otherwise authorized pursuant to the federal Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA) [42 U.S.C. § 1973ff et seq.] to vote by absentee ballot; or

  • Because such person is otherwise authorized by federal law to vote by absentee ballot.

Del. Code Ann. tit. 15, § 5502 (2012).

In Delaware, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person, online, or by mail no later than 4 days before the election.

Del. Code Ann. tit. 15, § 5504 (2021).

Delaware does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Absentee ballot return envelopes are printed with an oath that must be signed by the voter.

Del. Code tit. 15, § 5505 (2017).

Absentee ballots must be received by the time the polls close on the day of the election. Delaware does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Del. Code tit. 15, § 5508 (2014).

Delaware does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

Currently, Delaware does not offer in-person voting before election day.

However, effective Jan. 1, 2022, HB 38 (2019), Delaware will provide in-person early voting to all eligible voters before election day. The early voting period begins at least 10 days before the election and ends up to and including the Saturday and Sunday immediately before an election. (9 days).

The State Election Commissioner shall open the designated early voting locations for at least 8 hours on each day of early voting. The State Election Commissioner shall close the designated early voting locations no earlier than 7 p.m. on each day of early voting and shall open the designated early voting locations by 7 a.m. on at least 5 of the early voting days.

Del. Code tit. 15, §§ 5402, 5404 (2017).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m (13 hours).

In closing the election the inspector and the judges shall, nevertheless, permit those electors to vote who have presented themselves and have offered to vote prior to 8:00 p.m., provided that at 8:00 p.m. they shall be in a line awaiting their turn to vote within the voting room itself or if the line extends outside of the voting room itself within that line.

Del. Code tit. 15, §§ 4931, 4947 (2014).

Delaware requires voters to provide personal identification before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • Photo ID
  • Utility bill
  • Paycheck
  • Any government document with voter’s name and address

In the event the voter does not have proof of identity with them, he or she shall sign an affidavit of affirmation that he or she is the person listed on the election district record.

Delaware's voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

Del. Code tit. 15, § 4937 (2014).

No election officer, challenger, or any other person within the polling place or within 50 feet of the entrance to the building in which the voting room is located shall electioneer during the conduct of the election. No political headquarters or gathering shall be permitted within that building during the conduct of the election.

“Electioneering” includes political discussion of issues, candidates or partisan topics, the wearing of any button, banner, or other object referring to issues, candidates or partisan topics, the display, distribution, or other handling of literature or any writing or drawing referring to issues, candidates or partisan topics, the deliberate projection of sound referring to issues, candidates or partisan topics from loudspeakers or otherwise into the polling place or the area within 50 feet of the entrance to the building in which the voting room is located.

Del. Code Ann. tit. 15, § 4942 (1995).

Florida

The Florida Secretary of State is appointed by the governor and is the state's chief election officer. The Secretary of State is required to obtain and maintain uniformity in the interpretation and implementation of the election laws. The Secretary is responsible for adopting rules for the holding of uniform and equitable elections; for creating and administering a statewide voter registration system; providing assistance to and supervising local election officials; educating voters on election procedures; and ensuring compliance with federal election and voting laws.

§97.012, Fla. Stat.

No, Florida does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Florida does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than 29 days before the election by 7pm. If registering by mail, the completed application must be postmarked by the 29th day before the election and received by a board of elections no later than 24 days before the election.

Fla. Stat. § 97.055 (2008).

In Florida, a person convicted of a felony (that is not murders or a sexual offense) loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their full sentence, including prison time, parole, probation, and payment of any restitution, fines, and fees.

A person convicted of murder or a felony sexual offense loses voting rights and cannot regain the right to vote unless restored by the governor.

Fla. Stat. § 98.0751 (2020).

No, Florida does not conduct all-mail voting.

Florida allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any registered voter may vote at any election by absentee ballot. A person wishing to vote absentee must request a ballot first.

Fla. Stat. §101.62 (2020).

In Florida, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person, online, or by mail no later than 10 days before the election.

Effective May 6, 2021, FL SB 90 (2021), Florida now requires requires an elector, in order to request an absentee ballot, to provide the elector’s Florida driver license number, Florida identification card number, or the last four digits of the elector’s social security number. The 2021 law also requires voters to request an absentee ballot for each two-year election cycle, rather than every four years, under previous law.

Fla. Stat. §101.62 (2020).

Florida does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Vote-by-mail ballots must be signed, but there is no requirement for a witness. The signature must match the signature on record from the voter’s registration application in order for the ballot to be counted.

Fla. Stat. §101.65 (2020).

Absentee ballots must be received by 7:00 pm on the day of the election. Florida does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Fla. Stat. §101.65 (2020).

Effective May 6, 2021, FL SB 90 (2021), Florida allows drop box use for the early voting period only and must be monitored in person by an employee of the election supervisor's office.

Secure drop boxes shall be placed at the main office of the supervisor, at each permanent branch office of the supervisor, and at each early voting site. Secure drop boxes may also be placed at any other site that would otherwise qualify as an early voting site.

Drop boxes must be geographically located so as to provide all voters in the county with an equal opportunity to cast a ballot, insofar as is practicable. Except for secure drop boxes at an office of the supervisor, a secure drop box may only be used during the county’s early voting hours of operation and must be monitored in person by an employee of the supervisor’s office. A secure drop box at an office of the supervisor must be continuously monitored in person by an employee of the supervisor’s office when the drop box is accessible for deposit of ballots.

A supervisor shall designate each drop box site at least 30 days before an election. After a drop box location has been designated, it may not be moved or changed.

Electioneering is prohibited within 150 feet of a drop box location.

Fla. Stat. §101.69 (2020).

Florida provides in-person early voting to all eligible voters before election day. The early voting period begins 10 days before the election or up to 15 days before the election that contains state and federal races (at the discretion of the supervisor) and ends 3 days before the election or 2 days before an election that contains state and federal races (at the discretion of the supervisor) (12 days).

Early voting is available for at least 8 hours but not more than 12 hours per day.

Fla. Stat. §101.657 (2020).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m (12 hours).

Any voters waiting in line at 7:00 p.m. will have the opportunity to cast a ballot.

Fla. Stat. § 100.011 (2020).

Florida requires voters to provide personal identification with a photo before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • Florida driver license.
  • Florida ID card issued by the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles.
  • U.S. passport.
  • Debit or credit card.
  • Military ID.
  • Student ID.
  • Retirement center ID.
  • Neighborhood association ID.
  • Public assistance ID.
  • Veteran health ID card issued by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.
  • License to carry a concealed weapon or firearm
  • Employee ID card issued by any Federal, state, or local government agency.

If the picture identification does not contain a signature, an additional identification showing the voter’s signature is required.

If the elector fails to furnish the required picture identification with signature as required, the elector shall be allowed to vote a provisional ballot. The canvassing board shall determine the validity of the ballot by determining whether the elector is entitled to vote at the precinct where the ballot was cast and that the elector had not already cast a ballot in the election.

Florida uses signature matching: the voter signs the provisional ballot envelope. That signature is compared to the signature in the voter registration records. If they match, the ballot is counted.

Florida's voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

Fla. Stat. § 101.043 (2020).

Electioneering within 150 feet of the entrance to any polling place is prohibited. No person, political group, or organization may try to solicit voters within the buffer zone, nor attempt to seek any vote, fact, opinion, or contribution.

Other activities prohibited within the buffer zone include:

  • distributing or attempting to distribute any political or campaign material, leaflet, or handout;
  • conducting a poll, except for exit polls;
  • seeking or attempting to seek a signature on any petition;
  • selling or attempting to sell any item; and
  • engaging in any activity with the intent to influence or effect of influencing a voter.

Effective May 6, 2021, FL SB 90 (2021), a person at a polling place, a drop box location, or an early voting site, or within 150 feet of a drop box location or the entrance of a polling place or an early voting site, may not solicit any elector in an effort to provide assistance to vote.

Fla. Stat. §102.31 (2020).

Georgia

Elections are run and administered primarily by the state elections board.

The Secretary of State also has responsibilities in the administration of elections.

Georgia Code Title 21. Elections § 21-2-31, § 21-2-50.

Yes, Georgia implemented an automatic voter registration system in 2016 via administrative rules. Eligible voters in Georgia are automatically registered to vote in the state when they complete a license application with the Department of Driver Services. Individuals customers may choose to opt-out of the automatic registration during the transaction with the state agency.

Georgia does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than the 5th Monday before election day (29 days).

Ga. Code Ann. § 21-2-224 (2020).

In Georgia, a person convicted of a felony involving moral turpitude loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their full sentence, including prison time, parole, and probation.

Ga. Code Ann. § 21-2-216 (2020).

No, Georgia does not provide for all-mail voting.

Georgia allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any elector may vote by absentee ballot without being required to provide a reason.

Ga. Code Ann. § 21-2-380 (2020)

In Georgia, under SB 202 (2021), effective July 1, 2021, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person, online, or by mail no later than the end of the business day on the second Friday before election day (12 days). Previously, the deadline was the Friday before election day (5 days).

Ga. Code. Ann. § 21-2-381 (2020); see also GA SB 202 (2021).

Georgia does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Electors must fill out, subscribe, and swear to the oath printed on the absentee ballot envelope. Effective July 1, 2021, SB 202 (2021), returning an absentee ballot requires either your driver's license number, state ID number or, if you don't have those, a copy of acceptable voter ID.

Ga. Code Ann. § 21-2-385 (2020).

Absentee ballots must be received by the time the polls close on the day of the election. Georgia does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Ga. Code Ann. § 21-2-385 (2020).

Effective July 1, 2021, SB 202 (2021), Georgia requires every county to provide a secure absentee drop box during the early voting period only.

The number of drop boxes a county may provide is capped at 1 box per 100,000 active registered voters in the county or 1 for every early voting site (whichever number is less).

Drop boxes must be located inside an early voting site and will only be accessible during early voting days and during the hours an early voting location is open. The drop box location shall have adequate lighting and be under constant surveillance by an election official or his or her designee, law enforcement official, or licensed security guard.

Ga. Code Ann. § 21-2-382 (2020).

Georgia provides in-person early voting to all eligible voters before election day. The early voting period begins on the fourth Monday before the election and ends on the Friday before the election (19 days).

Under SB 202 (2021), effective July 1, 2021, requires counties to provide early voting on both Saturdays during the early voting period and makes Sundays optional. Hours on early voting days are at least from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. or as long as 7 a.m. to 7 p.m.

Note that for runoff elections, state law says that early voting should start "as soon as possible" after a primary or general election, and requires in-person early voting the Monday through Friday before the election.

Ga. Code Ann. § 21-2-385 (2020); see also GA SB 202 (2021).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m (12 hours).

Ga. Code Ann. § 21-2-403 (2020).

Georiga requires all voters to provide personal identification with a photo before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • Georgia driver’s license, even if expired
  • ID card issued by the state of Georgia or the federal government
  • Free voter ID card issued by the state or county
  • U.S. passport
  • Valid employee ID card containing a photograph from any branch, department, agency, or entity of the U.S. Government, Georgia, or any county, municipality, board, authority, or other entity of this state
  • Valid U.S. military identification card
  • Valid tribal photo ID

A voter without one of the acceptable forms of photo identification can vote on a provisional ballot. He or she will have up to three days after the election to present appropriate photo identification at the county registrar's office in order for the provisional ballot to be counted.

Georiga's voter ID requirements are considered "strict" because voters without acceptable identification must vote on a provisional ballot and also take additional steps after election day for it to be counted.

Ga. Code Ann. § 21-2-417 (2020).

Georgia prohibits the conduct of any campaign activities within 150 feet of the outer edge of any building within which a polling place is established, within any polling place, or within 25 feet of any voter standing in line to vote at any polling place.

Prohibited activities include:

  • solicit votes in any manner or by any means or method,
  • distribute or display any campaign material,
  • offer to give, or participate in the giving of any money or gifts, including, but not limited to, food and drink, to an elector (enacted as under SB 202 (2021), effective Mar. 25, 2021),
  • solicit signatures for any petition,
  • establish or set up any tables or booths on any day in which ballots are being cast (other than election officials discharging their duties).

Ga. Code Ann. § 21-2-414 (2020); see also GA SB 202 (2021).

Hawaii

The chief election officer shall supervise all state elections and shall adopt rules governing elections. The chief election officer may delegate responsibilities in state elections within a county to the clerk of that county or to other specified persons.

HRS § 11-2

No, Hawaii does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Hawaii offers same day and election day voter registration at the precinct polling place or absentee polling place established in the county associated with a voter’s residence. Voters doing same day registration are required to provide their Hawaii Driver License, state I.D., last four digits of their social security number, or voter I.D., which will be confirmed when received by the clerk’s office. The applicant must make a sworn affirmation that they have not voted and are qualified to vote.

Otherwise, the application for voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than 30 days before the election (extended to the next business day if this falls on a Sunday).

Haw. Rev. Stat. § 11-15.2 (2019).

In Hawaii, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of prison time.

Haw. Rev. Stat. § 831-2 (2021).

Yes, Hawaii conducts all-mail elections.

Each registered voter automatically receives their ballot in the mail approximately 18 days before each election. Voters who are away from their Hawaii residence during the election may submit an Absentee Application to have their ballot mailed to an alternate mailing address for the primary election, general election, or both. Completed applications must be submitted to the voter’s County Elections Division at least 7 days prior to the election.

Haw. Rev. Stat. § 11-102 (2021).

Hawaii conducts all-mail elections, which means voters do not need to request a ballot, and instead automatically receive one. Therefore, the state allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any person registered to vote may cast an absentee ballot.

Haw. Rev. Stat. § 15-2 (2019); see also Haw. Rev. Stat. §11-101 (2019).

Hawaii conducts all-mail elections, which means voters do not need to request a ballot, and instead automatically receive one. If a voter needs to change the address where the ballot should be mailed, the clerk shall continue mailing ballot packages to voters who update their voter registration address no later than 14 days before election day.

Haw. Rev. Stat. § 11-102 (2021).

Hawaii does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

The ballot contains a statement to be subscribed to by the voter that affirms the fact that the voter is the person voting and that the voter's employer or agent of the employer, agent of the voter's labor union, or any candidate listed on the ballot did not assist the voter. The ballot will be valid only if the affirmation statement is signed.

Haw. Rev. Stat. § 15-6 (2019).

Absentee ballots must be received by the time the polls close on the day of the election. Hawaii does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Haw. Rev. Stat. § 11-104 (2019).

Hawaii conducts all-mail elections with no early in-person voting options, which means voters will automatically receive a ballot to return by mail.

However, Hawaii allows election clerks to designate and provide for drop boxes ("places of deposit") to be open five business days before the election until 7:00 p.m. on the day of the election.

"Place of deposit" means a site within the county of the voter's registration address designated for the purpose of receiving return identification envelopes in an election conducted by mail.

The locations and apparatus for receiving voted ballots must be securely maintained during the period of use for each election. County election officials determine number and location.

Haw. Rev. Stat. § 11-109; § 11-1, § 11-B, § 11-I.

Hawaii conducts all-mail elections with no early in-person voting options, which means voters will automatically receive a ballot to return by mail.

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m (12 hours).

Haw. Rev. Stat. § 11-131 (2019).

Hawaii may request voters to provide personal identification before voting at the polls. Hawaii holds elections by mail, so this law impacts only voters who choose to vote in person on election day.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • a valid photo ID (Drivers License, State ID, etc),
  • a copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, paycheck, or other government issued document that shows your name and address.

If the voter has no identification, the voter will be asked to recite his/her date of birth and residence address to corroborate the information provided in the poll book.

Haw. Rev. Stat. § 11-104 (2019).

Election officials shall post in a conspicuous place, before operation of voting service centers or places of deposit, a map designating an area of 200 feet from the perimeter of any voter service center, place of deposit, and its appurtenances. Any person who remains or loiters within this specified area for the purpose of campaigning shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.

Haw. Rev. Stat. § 11-132 (2021).

Idaho

The Idaho Secretary of State is a statewide elected position and the state's chief election officer. The Secretary of State is responsible for maintaining uniformity in the application, operation, and interpretation of the election laws. County clerks, operating under the direction of the Secretary of State, supervise the administration of the election laws by local election officials.

Idaho Code § 34-201.

No, Idaho does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Idaho offers same day and election day voter registration at the precinct polling place where the voter resides or early voting site. Voters doing same day registration are required to show a photo ID and proof of residence.

Otherwise, the application for voter registration must be postmarked or submitted online no later than 25 days before the election.

Idaho Code § 34-408A (2016); see also Idaho Code § 34-410 (2003).

In Idaho, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their full sentence, including prison time, parole, and probation.

Idaho Const. art. IV, § 3; Idaho Code § 34-201 (2016).

No, Idaho does not conduct all-mail elections.

Idaho allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any registered voter may vote at any election by absentee ballot. A person wishing to vote absentee must request a ballot first.

Idaho Code § 34-1001 (2020).

In Idaho, applications for absentee ballots must be received online or by mail no later than 11 days before the election. If requested in person at an "absent electors' voting place," the request to receive an absentee ballot must be received no later than 5:00 p.m. on the Friday before the election. (5 days).

Idaho Code § 34-1002(7) (2020).

Idaho does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

The voter must sign the affidavit printed on the back of the absentee ballot return envelopes. The county clerk will verify the authenticity of the affidavit.

Effective Apr. 19, 2021 (ID HB 290 (2021)), the county clerk shall verify the signature of an absentee ballot matches the signature from the elector's voter registration.

Idaho Code § 34-1005 (2011).

Absentee ballots must be received by 8:00 pm on the day of the election. Idaho does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Idaho Code § 34-1005 (2011).

Idaho does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

Idaho Code § 34-1005 (2011).

Idaho counties may offer "in-person absentee" voting before election day at a location determined by the county clerk. Idaho allows no-excuse absentee voting, but an elector wishing to vote early in person must request an absentee ballot prior to doing so.

The in-person absentee period begins on or before the 3rd Monday before the election and ends at 5:00 pm the Friday before the election. Not all counties conduct early voting.

Idaho Code § 34-1012 (2016).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 8:00 am to 8:00 pm (12 hours).

Anyone in line by 8:00 pm must be allowed to vote. County Clerks have the option to open the polls at 7:00 am.

Idaho Code § 34-1101 (1993).

Idaho requires voters to provide personal identification with a photo before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • Idaho driver's license
  • Idaho ID card
  • Passport
  • ID card, including a photo, issued by an agency of the U.S. government
  • Tribal ID card, including a photograph
  • Student ID card, including a photograph, issued by a high school or accredited institution of higher education within the state of Idaho
  • Concealed carry weapon license

Alternatively, if a voter is not able to present personal identification, the voter may complete an affidavit in lieu of the personal identification. The affidavit will be on a form prescribed by the secretary of state and will require the voter to provide the voter’s name and address. The voter shall sign the affidavit. Any person who knowingly provides false, erroneous, or inaccurate information on such affidavit shall be guilty of a felony.

Idaho's voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

Idaho Code §§ 34-1113, 34-1114 (2017).

The following is prohibited within 100 feet of a polling place on election day:

  • Any electioneering;
  • circulating cards or handbills of any kind;
  • soliciting signatures to any kind of petition; or
  • engaging in any practice which interferes with the freedom of voters to exercise their franchise or disrupts the administration of the polling place.

No person may obstruct the doors or entries to a building in which a polling place is located or prevent free access to and from any polling place.

Idaho Code § 18-2318 (2020).

Illinois

Illinois's elections are overseen by the state board of elections. The board consists of 8 members: 4 residents of Cook County and 4 residents of the State outside of Cook County. Of the 4 members from each area, 2 must be affiliated with the same political party as the Governor, and 2 must be affiliated with the political party whose nominee for Governor in the most recent general election received the second-highest number of votes.

10 ILCS 5/Art. 1A

Yes, Illinois implemented an automatic voter registration system in 2018 via legislation. Eligible voters in Illinois are automatically registered to vote in the state when they complete a license application with the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV). DMV customers may choose to opt-out of the automatic registration during the transaction with the DMV.

10 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/1A-16.1, 16.2, 16.7 (2017).

Illinois offers same day and election day voter registration during the "grace period" that starts 27 days before the election. "Grace Period registration" generally occurs at the voter's local election office instead of voter's regular polling place. Voters using "grace period registration" are required to show two forms of identification with at least one showing current address. The local election officials verify information of same-day registrants, usually after the election.

Otherwise, a mailed application for voter registration must be postmarked no later than 28 days before the election. And an online submission of the application is due 16 days before the election.

10 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5 / 1-1 (2020).

In Illinois, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of prison time.

10 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/3-5 (2020).

No, Illinois does not conduct all-mail elections.

Illinois allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any qualified and registered elector may request an absentee ballot.

10 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/19-1 (2019)

In Illinois, applications for absentee ballots must be received online, or by mail no later than 5 days before the election. Voters must request one in person at least 1 day before the election.

10 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/19-2 (2015).

Illinois does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

To verify absentee ballots, the election judge or official compares the voter's signature on the certification envelope to the signature of the voter on file in the office of the election authority.

10 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/19-8 (2020).

Absentee ballots must be postmarked by election day and received no later than 14 days after the election.

10 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/19-8 (2020).

Effective Apr. 2, 2021, IL HB 1871 (2021), Illinois allows election authorities to maintain one or more ballot boxes ("secure collection sites" for return of vote by mail ballots.

Any election authority with collection sites shall collect all ballots returned each day at close of business and process them, including noting the day on which the ballot was returned. Ballots returned to such collection sites after close of business shall be dated as delivered the next day, with the exception of ballots delivered on election day, which shall be dated as received on election day. Election authorities shall permit electors to return vote by mail ballots at any collection site it has established through the close of polls on election day.

All collection sites shall be secured by locks that may be opened only by election authority personnel.

10 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5 / 1-1 (2020) (as amended by Public Act 102-0001).

Illinois provides in-person early voting to all eligible voters before election day. The early voting period begins 40 days before the election for temporary polling locations and 15 days before the election for permanent locations and ends on the day before the election (39 days).

In Illinois, the distinction is made between temporary and permanent early voting polling places. These designations are set by election authorities. Permanent polling places are required in counties above a set population threshold. At least one early voting polling place is required at a location within each of the 3 largest municipalities within its counties with a population over 250,000. Two are required in municipalities with over 80,000. A city, village, or incorporated town with a population of over 100,000 must establish at least 2 permanent polling places. Permanent polling places must remain open during the hours of 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., or 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., on weekdays, except that beginning 8 days before election day, a permanent polling place for early voting must remain open during the hours of 8:30 a.m. to 7:00 p.m., or 9:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m., and 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. on Saturdays and holidays, and 10:00 a.m. to 4 p.m. on Sundays.

10 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/19A (2020).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 6:00 am to 7:00 pm (13 hours).

10 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/18-2 (2020).

Illinois does not require registered voters to present identification documents at the polls. Before casting a ballot, voters must state their name and, if requested, their address and sign an affidavit of eligibility.

10 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/17-9 (2020).

No judge of election, pollwatcher, or other person shall, at any primary or election, do any electioneering or soliciting of votes or engage in any political discussion within any polling place, within 100 feet of any polling place, or, at the option of a church or private school, on any of the property of that church or private school that is a polling place. No person shall interrupt, hinder, or oppose any voter while approaching within those areas for the purpose of voting.

10 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/17-29 (2019).

Indiana

Indiana uses a combination of a chief election official and a commission to oversee elections in the state.

The secretary of state is the state's chief election official.

The Election Commission administers Indiana election laws. The commission is made up of 4 members appointed by the governor upon recommendation by appropriate major political party state chair. Not more than two 2 members of the commission may be a member of the same political party. The governor shall appoint 1 of the members of the commission to be the chair and 1 of the members to be the vice chair. The chair of the commission must be a member of the same political party as the individual who is the secretary of state. The vice chair and the chair may not be affiliated with the same political party.

Ind. Code § 3-6-3.7, 3-6-4.1, 3-6-5.

No, Indiana does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Indiana does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or received in person no later than 29 days before the election.

Ind. Code §§ 3-7-33-3, -4 (2020).

In Indiana, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of prison time.

Ind. Code § 3-7-46 (2020).

No, Indiana does not conduct all-mail elections.

Ind. Code § 3-11-4 (2021).

Indiana requires an excuse for not voting on election day in order to request an absentee ballot.

In order to vote absentee in Indiana, you must meet one of the following criteria:

  • You have a specific, reasonable expectation that you will be absent from the county on election day during the entire 12 hours that the polls are open;
  • You have a disability;
  • You are at least 65 years of age;
  • You will have official election duties outside of your voting precinct;
  • You are scheduled to work at your regular place of employment during the entire 12 hours that the polls are open;
  • You will be confined due to illness or injury or you will be caring for an individual confined due to illness or injury during the entire 12 hours that the polls are open;
  • You will be prevented from voting because of a religious discipline or religious holiday during the entire 12 hours that the polls are open;
  • You are a participant in the state's address confidentiality program;
  • You are a serious sex offender;
  • You are a member of the military or a public safety officer;
  • You are prevented from voting due to the unavailability of transportation to the polls; or
  • You are eligible under the relevant provisions of state law to vote at your place of previous registration.

Ind. Code § 3-11-10-24 (2019).

In Indiana, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person, online, or by mail no later than 12 days before the election.

Ind. Code § 3-11-4-3 (2019).

Indiana does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot. However, a first-time voter in Indiana who registered to vote by mail and did not provide proof of residency will be asked to include that evidence with their absentee balloting materials. This can be a state-issued ID where the address matches their registration, but can also be a bank statement, utility bill, etc.

A voter's signature on an absentee ballot is compared to the signature of the voter maintained in any statewide voter registration system. If they do not match, the board is required to try to notify the voter within 2 business days. Absentee ballot return envelopes are printed with an affidavit on the back, which the voter must sign under penalty of perjury.

Ind. Code §§ 3-11-4-21, 3-11-10-1,3-11-10-1.2, 3-11-10-4 (2005).

Effective July 1, 2021, SB 398 (2021), absentee ballots must be received by 6:00 pm (local prevailing time) on the day of the election. Indiana does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Before the 2021 law, absentee ballots were due by noon on election day.

Ind. Code § 3-11-10-11 (2021).

Effective July 1, 2021, SB 398 (2021), Indiana restricts drop boxes to the physical control and supervision of the county election board.

A county election board shall reject an absentee ballot deposited in a drop box or other container or location that is not under the physical control and supervision of the county election board when the ballot is deposited.

If a drop box or other container is located in a building under the control of a political subdivision in which a document may be deposited for other purposes related to the office of the circuit court clerk or an office of any other political subdivision the political subdivision in control of the drop box or container shall post a notice on or in a prominent location adjacent to the drop box or container saying substantially as follows: "Do not deposit a voted absentee ballot into this box or container. The absentee ballot will not be counted."

If an absentee ballot is deposited into a box or container in violation of subsection (f) or (g), the county election board shall mark the absentee ballot security envelope as rejected and, if possible, promptly notify the individual whose name appears on the security envelope containing the absentee ballot.

Ind. Code § 3-11-10-24.

Indiana provides "in-person absentee" voting before election day. Only electors with a proper excuse may request their absentee ballot and cast their in-person absentee ballots at the office of the county commissioner of elections during normal business hours

The in-person absentee period begins no more than 28 days before the election and ends at noon (local prevailing time) the day before the election. In addition, all Indiana counties must make in-person absentee voting available the two Saturdays immediately before the election.

Each county must have at least one location available for early voting, either the office of the board of elections and registration or the office of the circuit court clerk designated by the circuit court clerk. A county election board may adopt a resolution to authorize the circuit court clerk to establish additional satellite offices in the county for early voting.

The office of the circuit court clerk must permit in-person absentee voting for at least 7 hours on each of the two Saturdays preceding election day, but a county with fewer than 20,000 voters may reduce this to a minimum of 4 hours on each of the two Saturdays preceding election day.

Ind. Code §§ 3-11-4-1, 3-11-10-26, 3-11-10-26.3 (2020).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 6:00 am to 6:00 pm (12 hours).

A county election board or a board of elections and registration does not have the power to extend the hours that the polls are to be open in any precinct or vote center of the county.

Ind. Code § 3-11-8-8 (2021).

Indiana requires all voters to provide personal identification with a photo before voting at the polls.

Indiana law does not list specific forms of acceptable identification. The identification document must be issued by the state of Indiana or the U.S. government and must show the following:

  • Name of individual to whom it was issued, which must conform to the individual's registration record;
  • Photo of the person to whom it was issued; and
  • Expiration date (if it is expired, it must have an expiration date after the most recent general election; military IDs are exempted from the requirement that the ID bears an expiration date).

Voters who are unable or decline to produce proof of identification may vote by provisional ballot. The ballot is counted only if (1) the voter returns to the election board by noon on the Monday after the election and: produces proof of identification or executes an affidavit stating that the voter cannot obtain proof of identification because the voter: is indigent or has a religious objection to being photographed; and (2) the voter has not been challenged or required to vote a provisional ballot for any other reason.

Indiana's voter ID requirements are considered "strict" because voters without acceptable identification must vote on a provisional ballot and also take additional steps after election day for it to be counted.

Ind. Code §§ 3-5-2-40.5, 3-10-1-7.2, 3-11-8-25.1 (2020).

Electioneering within the polls or the "chute" (the area or pathway that extends 50 feet in length, measured from the entrance to the polls) is prohibited.

"Electioneering" includes expressing support or opposition to any candidate or political party or expressing approval or disapproval of any public question in any manner that could reasonably be expected to convey that support or opposition to another individual. The term includes wearing or displaying an article of clothing, sign, button, or placard that states the name of any political party or includes the name, picture, photograph, or other likeness of any currently elected federal, state, county, or local official.

"Electioneering" does not include expressing support or opposition to a candidate or a political party or expressing approval or disapproval of a public question in material mailed to a voter or) a telephone or electronic communication with a voter.

Ind. Code § 3-14-3-16 (2013).

Iowa

The secretary of state is designated the chief state election official and is responsible for coordination of state responsibilities. To do so, the secretary of state is designated as the state commissioner of elections and shall supervise the activities of the county commissioners of elections. There is established within the office of the secretary of state a division of elections which shall be under the direction of the state commissioner of elections. The state commissioner of elections may appoint a person to be in charge of the division of elections who shall perform the duties assigned by the state commissioner of elections. The state commissioner of elections shall prescribe uniform election practices and procedures, shall prescribe the necessary forms required for the conduct of elections, shall assign a number to each proposed constitutional amendment and statewide public measure for identification purposes.

The county auditor of each county is designated as the county commissioner of elections in each county. The county commissioner of elections shall conduct voter registration and conduct all elections within the county.

The commissioner may designate as a deputy county commissioner of elections any officer of a political subdivision who is required by law to accept nomination papers filed by candidates for office in that political subdivision, and when so designated that person shall assist the commissioner in administering elections conducted by the commissioner for that subdivision. The designation of a person as a deputy commissioner of elections pursuant to this section, once made, shall continue in effect until the designation is withdrawn by the commissioner.

Title II Chapter 47.1, Title II Chapter 47.2.

No, Iowa does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Iowa offers same day and election day voter registration at the county auditor’s office or satellite voting location during the in-person absentee period and at the precinct polling place where the voter resides on election day. Voters registering on election day are required to provide a current photo ID as well as current proof of residency. The applicant must also complete a written oath.

Otherwise, effective Mar. 8, 2021, IA SF 413 (2021), the application for voter registration must be submitted online or in person no later than 15 days before the election. Mailed applications must be postmarked 15 days before the election or received 10 days before election day.

Before the 2021 law, the deadline for online or in person registration was 10 days before the election instead of the current 15-day deadline.

Iowa Code § 48A.9 (2020); see also Iowa Code § 48A.7A (2020).

In Iowa, under an executive order (2020), a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of prison time. There is an exception for individuals convicted of felony homicide, who must apply for restoration of voting rights.

Iowa Code § 48A.6 (2020).

No, Iowa does not conduct all-mail elections.

Iowa allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any registered voter may vote at any election (1) when the voter expects to be absent on election day during the time the polls are open from the precinct in which the voter is a registered voter; (2) when, through illness or physical disability, the voter expects to be prevented from going to the polls and voting on election day; or (3) when the voter expects to be unable to go to the polls and vote on election day.

Iowa Code §§ 53.1, 53.2, 53.45 (2020).

In Iowa, applications for absentee ballots must be received by mail no later than 10 days before the general election. If dropping off the application in person, the application must be received 1 day before election day (unless the polls open at noon, in which case the voter may cast an absentee ballot at the county auditor's office from 8am to 11am on election day).

Effective Mar. 8, 2021, IA SF 413 (2021), applications for absentee ballots may begin 70 days before the election. Before the 2021 law, electors had 120 days before the election to begin requesting absentee ballots.

Iowa Code §§ 53.2, 53.10 (2020).

Iowa does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Absentee voters sign an affidavit on the ballot envelope.

Iowa Code § 53.16 (2020),; see also Iowa Code §53.18 (2020).

Effective Mar. 8, 2021, IA SF 413 (2021), absentee ballots must be received by the time the polls close on the day of the election. Iowa does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Before the 2021 law, absentee ballots in Iowa needed to be postmarked by the day before election day and received no later than the Monday following election day

Iowa Code § 53.17 (2021).

Effective Mar. 8, 2021, IA SF 413 (2021), Iowa permits election commissioners to establish a ballot drop box.

A commissioner shall not establish more than one ballot drop box, which shall be located at the office of the commissioner, or on property owned and maintained by the county that directly surrounds the building where the office is located.

The commissioner shall implement all reasonable and necessary measures to ensure that the ballot drop box is accessible and secure. Security measures may include placing the ballot drop box in a place regularly viewed by the commissioner or the commissioner’s staff. A video surveillance system shall be used to monitor all activity at the ballot drop box at all times while the ballot drop box is in place. The system shall create a recording, which shall be reviewed by the state commissioner, county attorney, and law enforcement in the event that misconduct occurs. While available, a ballot drop box shall be securely fastened to a stationary surface or an immovable object. The ballot drop box shall be secured by a lock and shall include a tamper-evident seal. Only the commissioner or an employee of the commissioner shall have access to the means to unfasten the lock.

Iowa Code § 53.17 (2021).

Iowa provides "in-person absentee" voting before election day at the office of the county commissioner of elections during normal business hours. Iowa allows no-excuse absentee voting, but an elector wishing to vote early in person must apply for and receive an absentee ballot prior to doing so.

Effective Mar. 8, 2021, IA SF 413 (2021), the in-person absentee period begins 20 days before the election and ends at 5:00 pm the day before the election (19 days).

Before the 2021 law, the in-person absentee period ran for 29 days before an election (28 days).

Iowa Code §§ 53.10, 53.42, 47.2 (2020).

Effective Mar. 8, 2021, IA SF 413 (2021), on election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 8:00 pm (13 hours).

Before the 2021 law, polls were open until 9:00 pm on election day (14 hours) instead of 8:00 pm.

Iowa Code § 49.73 (2021).

Iowa requires voters to provide personal identification before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • Iowa driver’s license
  • Iowa nonoperator’s identification card
  • U.S. passport
  • U.S. military card
  • Veteran’s identification card
  • A current and signed voter identification card

If the registered voter is unable to produce a required identification, they may present either a current voter identification card or forms of identification sufficient to establish identity and residence dates (e.g., lease, utility bill, bank statement, paycheck, other government document). County auditors are required to issue voter identification cards to newly registered voters who do not possess a valid form of ID.

Alternatively, a person who is registered to vote but is unable to present a form of identification listed above, may establish identity and residency in the precinct by written oath of a person who is also registered to vote in the precinct.

If a voter cannot meet any of the above options, the voter may cast a provisional ballot.

Iowa's voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

Iowa Code §§ 49.78, 48A.7A, 48A.10A, 49.81.

A person commits the crime of election misconduct in the third degree if the person willfully commits any of the following acts on election day:

  • Loitering, congregating, electioneering, posting signs, treating voters, or soliciting votes, during the receiving of the ballots, either on the premises of a polling place or within 300 feet of an outside door of a building affording access to a room where the polls are held, or of an outside door of a building affording access to a hallway, corridor, stairway, or other means of reaching the room where the polls are held.
  • Placing a sign that is more than 90 square inches in size on a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer, or its attachment to a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer parked on public property within 300 feet of a polling place.
  • Interrupting, hindering, or opposing a voter while in or approaching the polling place for the purpose of voting.
  • As a voter, submitting a false statement as to the voter’s ability to mark a ballot.
  • Interfering or attempting to interfere with a voter when the voter is inside the enclosed voting space, or when the voter is marking a ballot.
  • Endeavoring to induce a voter to show how the voter marks or has marked a ballot.
  • Marking, or causing in any manner to be marked, on a ballot, any character for the purpose of identifying such ballot.

Iowa Code §§ 39A.4, 68A.406 (2020).

Kansas

The Kansas Secretary of State is a statewide elected position and the state's chief election officer, responsible for providing information regarding voter registration and absentee ballot procedures; and accepting valid voter registrations and absentee ballot applications.

Effective July 1, 2021, HB 2332 (2021), prohibits the Governor, the Executive Branch, and the Judicial Branch from altering election laws. Requires approval from the Legislative Coordinating Council prior to the Secretary of State entering into consent decrees with any court.

K.S.A. 25-1223

No, Kansas does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Kansas does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than 21 days before the election.

Kan. Stat. Ann. § 25-2311 (2015).

In Kansas, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their full sentence, including prison time, parole, and probation.

Kan. Stat. Ann. 21-6613 (2011).

No, Kansas does not conduct all-mail elections.

Kansas allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any registered voter is eligible to vote by advance voting ballot on all offices and to vote by advance voting ballot on questions submitted on which such elector would otherwise be entitled to vote.

Effective Mar. 21, 2021, (KS HB 2332 (2021)) non-residents are prohibited from mailing an advance voting ballot.

Kan. Stat. Ann. § 25-1119 (2021)

In Kansas, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person, online, or by mail no later than the Tuesday of the week preceding such general election (7 days).

Kan. Stat. Ann. § 25-1122 (2004).

Kansas requires a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Effective July 1, 2021, HB 2183 (2021), county election officers are prohibited from accepting an advance voting ballot transmitted by mail unless they first verify the signature on an advance voting ballot envelope matches the signature on file in the county voter registration records. If the signature of a person on the advance voting ballot envelope does not match the signature on file, the ballot will not be counted. Verification could occur by electronic device or human inspection.

A Kansas voter applying for an advance voting ballot to be transmitted in person shall provide identification. A Kansas voter applying for an advance voting ballot to be transmitted by mail shall provide with the application for an advance voting ballot the voter's current and valid Kansas driver's license number, nondriver's identification card number or a photocopy of any other identification. The county election official shall verify that the signature of the person matches that on file in the county voter registration records.

Kan. Stat. Ann. § 25-1122 (2018).

Absentee ballots must be postmarked by election day and received no later than 3 days after the election.

Kan. Stat. Ann. § 25-1132 (2015).

Kansas does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

Kansas provides in-person "advance voting" before election day at county election offices or satellite voting locations. The in-person absentee period begins 20 days before the election and ends at noon the day before the election.

Individuals who vote in person at the county election office or at a satellite location must show photographic identification. If an advance voter does not provide identification, or if the information is not valid, the county election officer may issue a provisional ballot to the voter. The provisional ballot will not be considered valid until the voter submits their photographic identification to before the county canvass.

Kan. Stat. Ann. § 25-1120 (2018).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 7:00 pm (12 hours).

Unless different hours are set and publicly announced by the county election officer. If different hours are set, the polls shall be open at least 12 continuous hours commencing not earlier than 6:00 a.m. and ending not later than 8:00 p.m. and ending not earlier than 7:00 p.m.

Kan. Stat. Ann. § 25-106 (2015).

Kansas requires all voters to provide personal identification with a photo before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • A driver's license;
  • A state identification card;
  • A concealed carry handgun license
  • A United States passport;
  • An employee badge or identification document issued by a municipal, county, state, or federal government office or agency;
  • A military identification document issued by the United States;
  • A student identification card issued by an accredited post-secondary institution of education in the state of Kansas;
  • A public assistance identification card issued by a municipal, county, state, or federal government office or agency; or
  • An identification card issued by an Indian tribe.

If a voter is unable or refuses to provide current and valid identification, the voter may vote a provisional ballot. The voter shall provide a valid form of identification to the county election officer in person or provide a copy by mail or electronic means before the meeting of the county board of canvassers.

Kansas voter ID requirements are considered "strict" because voters without acceptable identification must vote on a provisional ballot and also take additional steps after election day for it to be counted.

Kan. Stat. Ann. § 25-2908 (2015).

Electioneering within 250 feet of a polling place is prohibited. Electioneering includes wearing, exhibiting, or distributing labels, signs, posters, stickers, or other materials that clearly identify a candidate in the election or clearly indicate support or opposition to a question submitted election. Electioneering shall not include bumper stickers affixed to a motor vehicle.

Effective July 1, 2021, HB 2183 (2021), the definition of “electioneering” is expanded to include a candidate touching or handling a voter’s ballot during the voting process, unless it is on behalf of an immediate family member; distributing or counting ballots; hindering or obstructing a voter from voting, entering, or leaving a polling place; or hindering or obstructing an election board worker from performing election duties.

Kan. Stat. Ann. § 25-2430 (2021).

Kentucky

The State Board of Elections consists of the Secretary of State, who serves as the chief election official, and eight members appointed by the Governor from lists supplied by the two political parties in the Commonwealth.

The Board’s Duties:

  • Ensure Kentucky’s compliance with federal election law
  • Ensure Kentucky’s compliance with state election law
  • Provide and maintain the statewide voter registration database
  • Appoint county board of elections members
  • Train county clerks and county board of election members

The County Board of Elections has four members: the County Clerk serves as chair, the County Sheriff, and two members appointed by the State Board of Elections.

Commonwealth of Kentucky State Board of Elections

No, Kentucky does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 116.0455 (2020).

Kentucky does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than 29 days before the election.

Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 116.045 (2002).

In Kentucky, a person convicted of a felony, bribery in an election, or treason loses voting rights during incarceration. These individuals cannot regain the right to vote unless restored by the governor.

In 2019, Kentucky Governor Andy Beshear issued a blanket pardon (EO 2019-003) to 140,000 residents who have completed sentences for nonviolent felonies.

Ky. Const. art. XII, § 145.

No, Kentucky does not conduct all-mail elections.

State Board of Elections Information

Kentucky requires an excuse for not voting on election day in order to request an absentee ballot.

In order to vote absentee in Kentucky, voters must meet one of the following criteria:

  • Is a student who temporarily resides outside the county of his or her residence;

  • Has surgery, or whose spouse has surgery, scheduled that will require hospitalization on election day;

  • Temporarily resides outside the state, but is still eligible to vote in this state and will be absent from the county of his or her residence on any election day;

  • Is a resident of Kentucky who is a uniformed-service voter confined to a military base on election day, learns of that confinement within 7 days or less of an election, and is not eligible for a mail-in absentee ballot under this subsection;

  • Is in her last trimester of pregnancy at the time she wishes to vote under this paragraph. The application form for a voter under this subparagraph shall be prescribed by the State Board of Elections, which shall contain the woman's sworn statement that she is in fact in her last trimester of pregnancy at the time she wishes to vote;

  • Has not been declared mentally disabled by a court of competent jurisdiction and, on account of age, disability, or illness, is not able to appear at the polls on election day; or

  • Is not permitted to vote by a mail-in absentee ballot but who will be absent from the county of his or her residence on election day.

Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 117.085 (2020).

In Kentucky, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person, online, or by mail no later than the close of business 7 days before the election.

Effective July 3, 2021, HB 574 (2021), mail-in ballot requests through the state's online portal will be open from 45 days before the election until 14 days before the election.

Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 117.085.

Kentucky does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

A signature is required. If the voter uses a mark instead of a signature, two witness signatures are also required.

Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 117.085 (2020).

Absentee ballots must be received by the time the polls close on the day of the election. Kentucky does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 117.086.

Effective July 3, 2021, HB 574 (2021), Kentucky requires that counties make ballot drop boxes available. The county clerk must provide a minimum of one secure ballot drop-box to receive voted mail-in absentee ballots for each primary, regular election, or special election. Public notice of all secure ballot drop-box locations shall be given and posted to the website of the county clerk.

Any drop-box or receptacle located outside of the county clerk's office shall be placed in a well-lit and easily accessible location; secured to ensure immobility while in use; under video surveillance at all times; tamper-resistant; and conspicuously noted as a mail-in absentee ballot drop-off location.

A drop-box or receptacle located inside the county clerk's office shall be under direct supervision of the staff of the county clerk at all times and be accessible to the public.

Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 117.086.

Effective July 3, 2021, HB 574 (2021), Kentucky provides "in-person absentee" voting before election day at the county clerk's office or other place designated by the county board of elections and approved by the State Board of Elections. Any voter who is qualified to vote on election day in the county of his or her residence may choose to cast an in person absentee ballot while in-person absentee voting is being conducted.

The in-person absentee voting period runs during normal business hours on the Thursday, Friday, and Saturday before the election (3 days).

Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 117.085.

On election day, polls are open for voting from 6:00 am to 6:00 pm (12 hours).

Commonwealth of Kentucky State Board of Elections FAQs

Kentucky requires voters to provide personal identification with a photo before voting at the polls.

A valid ID to vote, is a document issued by:

  • The United States or the Commonwealth of Kentucky;
  • The United States Department of Defense, a branch of the uniformed services, the Merchant Marines, or the Kentucky National Guard;
  • A public or private college, university, or postgraduate technical or professional school located within the United States;
  • Any city government, county government, urban-county government, charter county government, consolidated local government, or unified local government, which is located within this state,

And the document must contain the name of the individual to whom the document was issued; and a photograph of the individual to whom the document was issued.

Voters who cannot obtain a photo ID can sign a “Reasonable Impediment Declaration” (stating reason for inability to obtain photo ID) and present one of the following non-photo IDs:

  • Social Security Card;
  • Any ID issued by a county in KY that’s been approved by the State Board of Elections and shows voter’s name);
  • Any ID card with both the voter’s photograph and name;
  • Any food stamp ID card, electronic benefit transfer card, or supplemental nutrition assistance card issued by KY that shows voter’s name; or
  • A credit or debit card that shows voter’s name.

Kentucky's voter ID requirements are considered "strict" because voters without acceptable identification must vote on a provisional ballot and also take additional steps after election day for it to be counted.

Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 117.375, 117.227 (2020).

No person shall electioneer at the polling place on the day of any election, within a distance of 100 feet of any entrance to a building in which a voting machine is located if that entrance is unlocked and is used by voters on election day.

Electioneering includes the display of signs, the distribution of campaign literature, cards or handbills, the soliciting of signatures to any petition, or the solicitation of votes for or against any candidate or ballot question.

Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 117.235 (2016).

Louisiana

The Louisiana Secretary of State is a statewide elected position and the state's chief election officer. The Secretary of State is responsible for qualifying candidates, overseeing the election and tabulating and verifying the results.

La. R.S. 18:18

No, Louisiana does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Louisiana does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be completed 30 days before an election, or if applying by mail, postmarked 30 days prior to an election. If applying online, the deadline is 20 days prior to an election.

La. Stat. Ann. § 18:135 (2017).

In Louisiana, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their full sentence, including prison time, parole, and probation.

La. Stat. Ann. § 18:102 (2019).

No, Louisiana does not conduct all-mail voting.

Louisiana requires an excuse for not voting on election day in order to request an absentee ballot.

In order to vote absentee in Louisiana, you must meet one of the following criteria:

  • A member of the U.S. military, a U.S. government employee serving abroad, or the spouse or dependent of U.S. military or government official serving overseas.
  • A student, instructor, or professor in an institution of higher learning located outside the parish in which they are registered, or their spouse or dependent.
  • A minister, priest, rabbi, or other member of the clergy assigned to a religious post outside the parish in which they are registered.
  • A person who is or who expects to be temporarily outside the territorial limits of the state or absent from the parish in which the are qualified to vote during the early voting period and on election day.
  • A person who, after the registration books have closed, has moved his residence to another parish and the new residence is more than 100 miles from the parish seat of the parish of his former residence, in which case they may vote absentee by mail in the parish of his former residence.
  • A person involuntarily confined in an institution for mental treatment outside the parish in which they are qualified to vote, who is not interdicted and not judicially declared incompetent.
  • A person residing outside the United States.
  • A member of a sequestered jury on election day.
  • A person who expects to be hospitalized on election day.
  • A person who is employed upon state waters and expects to be upon the waters of the state both during the early voting period and on election day
  • A person who is incarcerated but not convicted of a felony
  • Disabled voters
  • Anyone age 65 or older
  • Election workers

La. Stat. Ann. § 18:1303 (2020).

In Louisiana, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person, online, or by mail no later than 4:30 p.m. 4 days day prior to the election.

La. Stat. Ann. § 18:1307 (2020).

Louisiana does not require a copy of voter identification but does require the signature of a witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

An absentee by mail ballot must be signed by both the voter and by one witness. A person who is a witness is allowed to serve as a witness for only one absentee ballot.

La. Stat. Ann. § 18:1306 (2020).

Absentee ballots must be received by 4:30 p.m. on the day before the election. Louisiana does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

La. Stat. Ann. § 18:1308(C) (2017).

Louisiana does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

Louisiana provides in-person early voting to all eligible voters before election day. The early voting period begins 14 days before the election and ends 3 days before the election (7 days).

Early voting is available 8:30 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. on Monday through Saturday (holidays excluded).

La. Stat. Ann. § 18:1309 (2020).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 8:00 pm (13 hours).

La. Stat. Ann. § 18:541 (2017).

Louisiana requires voters to provide personal identification with a photo before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • Louisiana driver's license
  • Louisiana special ID card
  • U.S. military identification card that contains the applicant's name and picture.
  • Other generally recognized picture identification card that contains the name and signature of the applicant.

If the applicant does not have identification, they will sign an affidavit to that effect before the commissioners, and the applicant shall provide further identification by presenting their current registration certificate, giving the date of birth, or providing other information stated in the precinct register that is requested by the commissioners. However, an applicant that is allowed to vote without the picture identification required is subject to challenge.

Louisiana's voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

La. Stat. Ann. § 18:562 (2019).

Electioneering is prohibited in Louisiana within 600 feet of a polling place, beginning one hour before voting starts and one hour after voting closes.

In the campaign-free zone, it is illegal to:

  • Solicit in any manner or by any means whatsoever any other person to vote for or against any candidate or proposition being voted on in such election.
  • Hand out, place, or display campaign cards, pictures, or other campaign literature of any kind or description whatsoever.
  • Place or display political signs, pictures, or other forms of political advertising.
  • Circulate a recall petition.

La. Stat. Ann. § 18:1462 (2013).

Maine

The Secretary of State oversees elections in Maine. The post is elected biennally by joint ballot of the Maine State Legislature.

Title 21-A, §722

No, Maine does not currently have an automatic voter registration system in place, but an automatic voter registration system is scheduled to be implemented starting in 2022.

Me. Stat. tit. 209, § 122-A, et seq. (2019).

Maine offers same day and election day voter registration when registering to vote in person at the town office or city hall. Voters registering to vote on election day must show proof of identity and residency to vote a regular ballot. If the voter fails to show satisfactory proof, then they can vote a provisional ballot.

Otherwise, mailed voter registration applications must be received by the close of business on the 21st day before election day.

Maine does not offer an online registration form, you must fill out a paper voter registration application.

Me. Stat. tit. 21-A, § 121-A (2011).

In Maine, people convicted of a felony never lose their right to vote, even while they are incarcerated.

Secretary of State, Residential Voter Information.

No, Maine does not conduct all-mail elections.

Me. Stat. tit 21-A, § 751 (1999)

Maine allows no-excuse absentee voting. Voters do not need to specify a reason to request and cast an absentee ballot.

Me. Stat. tit. 21-A, §751 (1999).

In Maine, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person, online, or by mail no later than 5:00 pm on the Thursday prior to the election (5 days).

Maine Secretary of State

Maine does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Signatures on the absentee ballot application and absentee ballot affidavit are compared.

Me. Stat. tit 21-A, §§ 754A, 756 (2019).

Absentee ballots must be received by the time the polls close on the day of the election. Maine does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Me. Stat. tit. 21-A, §755 (1991).

Maine does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

Me. Stat. tit. 21-A, §754A (2019).

Maine provides "in-person absentee" voting before election day at the municipal clerk's office. Maine allows no-excuse absentee voting, but an elector wishing to vote early in person must apply for and receive an absentee ballot prior to doing so.

The in-person absentee period begins 30 days before the election and ends at 5:00 pm the Thursday before the election.

Me. Stat. tit 21-A, §753-B (2019).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm (14 hours).

Anyone present at the voting place at closing time must be allowed to vote.

Me. Stat. tit. § 21-A, §625 (2021).

Maine does not require registered voters to present identification documents at the polls. Before casting a ballot, voters must state their name and, if requested, their address, which is then checked against the voting list.

Me. Stat. tit. 21-A, §671 (2019).

On public property within 250 feet of the entrance to the voting place as well as within the voting place itself, a person may not influence another person's decision regarding a candidate or question that is on the ballot for the election that day; or attempt to influence another person's decision regarding a candidate or question that is on the ballot for the election that day. These limitations do not prohibit a candidate from attending the voting place and orally communicating with voters as long as the candidate does not attempt to influence their vote. A candidate may not state the name of the office sought or request a person's vote.

A person may not display advertising material; operate an advertising medium, including a sound amplification device; or distribute campaign literature, posters, palm cards, buttons, badges, or stickers containing a candidate's name or otherwise intending to influence the opinion of any voter regarding a candidate or question that is on the ballot for the election that day on any public property located within 250 feet of the entrance to either the voting place or the building in which the registrar's office is located.

This does not apply to advertising material on automobiles traveling to and from the voting place for the purposes of voting. It does not prohibit a person who is at the polls solely for the purpose of voting from wearing a campaign button when the longest dimension of the button does not exceed 3 inches.

Me. Stat. tit. 21-A, §682 (2019).

Maryland

Maryland's elections are overseen by State and Local Boards of elections. The State Board consists of 5 members. The State Board can not have more than three or fewer than two members of the same principal political party.

The powers and duties of the State board are to: supervise the conduct of elections in the State; direct, support, monitor, and evaluate the activities of each local board; have a staff sufficient to perform its functions; adopt regulations to implement its powers and duties; receive, or in its discretion audit, campaign finance reports, account books and record independent expenditure reports filed and records, electioneering communication reports filed and records, and statements filed and records; appoint a State Administrator; maximize the use of technology in election administration, including the development of a plan for a comprehensive computerized elections management system; canvass and certify the results of elections as prescribed by law; make available to the general public, in a timely and efficient manner, information on the electoral process, including a publication that includes the text of this article, relevant portions of the Maryland Constitution, and information gathered and maintained regarding elections; receive, maintain, and serve as a depository for elections documents, materials, records, statistics, reports, certificates, proclamations, and other information prescribed by law or regulation; prescribe all forms required by law; and serve as the official designated office in accordance with the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act for providing information regarding voter registration and absentee ballot procedures for absent uniformed services voters and overseas voters with respect to elections for federal office.

Each county will have a county board of elections. Each local board and its staff is subject to the direction and authority of the State Board. Each local board, except for Prince George's and Montgomery County must consist of three regular members of the majority party, and two regular members of the principal minority party.

Md. Election Law Code Ann. § 2

Yes, Maryland implemented an automatic voter registration system in 2019 via legislation. Eligible voters in Maryland are automatically registered to vote in the state when they interact with designated state agencies, including the Motor Vehicle Administration, the Maryland Health Benefit Exchange, local social service agencies, and the Maryland Transit Administration’s mobility office. Individuals may choose to opt-out of the automatic registration during the transaction.

Md. Code Ann., Elec. Law §§ 3–203, 3–204.2 (2020).

Maryland offers same day and election day voter registration at early voting locations and precinct polling place on election day. Individuals appearing at a polling place on election day must provide proof of residency.

Otherwise, voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than 21 days before the election.

Md. Code Ann., Elec. Law § 3-302 (LexisNexis 2020).

In Maryland, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of prison time.

Md. Code Ann., Elec. Law § 3-102 (LexisNexis 2020).

No, Maryland does not conduct all-mail elections.

Maryland allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any registered Maryland voter may apply for an absentee ballot and vote by mail.

Md. Code Ann. Elec. Law §9-304 (2020).

In Maryland, applications for absentee ballots must be received no later than the closing of the polls on election day if requested in person, not later than the Friday preceding the election (5 days) if requested online, and not later than the Tuesday preceding the election (7 days) if requested by mail.

Md. Code Ann. Elec. Law § 9-305 (2021).

Maryland does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

The absentee ballot envelope contains an oath that must be signed by the voter.

Md. Code Ann., Elec. Law § 9-310 (2020).

Absentee ballots must be postmarked by election day and received no later than 10:00 am on the second Friday after the election (10 days).

Md. Code Ann., Elec. Law § 9-505 (LexisNexis 2020).

Effective June 1, 2021, MD SB 683 (2021), Maryland requires ballot drop boxes in each county.

Local boards of elections to submit proposed ballot drop box locations for approval by the State Administrator of Elections.

“Ballot drop box” means a secure, durable, and weatherproof container that is officially designated by a local board or the state board exclusively for voters to deposit election–related materials in person, which include absentee ballots, absentee ballot applications, and voter registration applications.

A local board shall remove the election–related materials from each ballot drop box at least once each day that the ballot drop box is open in accordance with chain of custody procedures.

A local board shall ensure the security of ballot drop boxes, including through monitoring by security cameras at all times and periodic in–person visits by appropriate personnel. A local board shall have immediate access or access within a reasonable amount of time to a security camera used for monitoring a ballot drop box.

Md. Code Ann., Elec. Law § 9-303, et seq. (2021) (as amended by MD SB 683).

Maryland provides in-person early voting to all eligible voters before election day. The early voting period begins the second Thursday before the election and ends on the Thursday before the election (7 days).

Early voting centers must be open during the hours between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. during presidential general elections and between 10 a.m. and 8 p.m. for all other elections.

MD HB 745 (2021), effective Oct. 1, 2021, expands the number of early voting centers certain counties are required to establish based on the number of registered voters in each jurisdiction.

Md. Code Ann., Elec. Law §10-301.1 (2020).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 8:00 pm (13 hours).

Md. Code Ann., Elec. Law § 10-301 (LexisNexis 2020).

Maryland does not require registered voters to present identification documents at the polls. Before casting a ballot, voters must state the month and day of their birth and under some circumstances verify their address. Election judges must locate the individual's name in the election register and locate the preprinted voting authority card.

Md. Code Ann., Elec. Law § 10-310 (LexisNexis 2020).

In Maryland, the electioneering boundaries are delineated by one election judge from each party. The boundaries must be 100 feet from the entrance and exit. In Montgomery County, it can be between 25 to 100 feet.

No electioneering means that no canvassing, electioneering, campaigning, or posting of any campaign material is permitted within the zone. "Posting of any campaign material" includes wearing clothing, shirt, hat, sticker, or button that indicates support of or opposition to any candidate, question, or political party if worn by any person allowed to remain in the zone. However, electioneering does not apply to a voter going to vote in his or her polling place. A person on his or her way to vote may wear campaign paraphernalia or carry campaign literature if the voter leaves the zone promptly after voting.

Md. Code Ann. Elec. Law § 16-206 (2020).

Massachusetts

The Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth is a statewide elected position and the state's chief election officer. The Elections Division of the Office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth administers state and federal elections. The Secretary of the Commonwealth is responsible for maintaining uniformity in the application, operation, and interpretation of the election laws. Local election officials, in the form of a board of election commissioners or an election commission in cities, and a board of registrars of voters in towns, operating under the direction of the Elections Divison of the Secretary of the Commonwealth, supervise the administration of the election laws. Laws are carried out by local election officials designated by local governing bodies/mayors, such as the city or town clerk.

General Laws Ch. 51, § 16a, Ch 51, § 17, Ch.54, § 11, Ch. 54, § 60, Ch. 54, § 12, Ch. 54, § 95.

Yes, Massachusetts implemented an automatic voter registration system in 2020 via legislation. Eligible voters in Massachusetts are automatically registered to vote in the state when they interact with designated state agencies, including the Registry of Motor Vehicles, MassHealth, and the Commonwealth Health Connector. Individuals will be notified of the automatic voter registration and may choose to opt-out of the voter registration.

Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 51, § 65 (2020).

Massachusetts does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than 20 days before the election.

Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 51, § 26 (2021).

In Massachusetts, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of prison time.

Mass Gen. Laws ch. 51, § 1 (2021); Mass. Const., amend. III, amend. CXX.

No, Massachusetts does not conduct all-mail elections.

Absentee & Early Voting

Massachusetts requires an excuse for not voting on election day in order to request an absentee ballot.

To qualify for an absentee ballot, you must:

  • Be away from your city/town on Election Day; or

  • Have a disability that keeps you from voting at your polling place; or

  • Have a religious belief that prevents you from voting at your polling place on Election Day

Examples include:

  • A military voter on active duty;
  • A Massachusetts citizen residing outside of the United States;
  • A voter who has been admitted to the hospital within 1 week of the election;
  • A voter who has been quarantined within 1 week of the election;
  • A voter who is incarcerated.

For elections held through June 30, 2021, state law clarifies that any person taking precautions relating to COVID-19 qualifies for an absentee ballot by reason of physical disability.

Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 54, § 86 (2021).

In Massachusetts, applications for absentee ballots must be received no later than the fourth business day preceding the election (7 days) if sent by mail, on or before noon on the day preceding the election (1 day) if in person.

Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 54, § 89 (2020).

Massachusetts does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

A voter may submit a written or electronically signed absentee voter application (downloaded from the Secretary of State's website) or submit a signed written request for an absentee ballot.

The absentee ballot envelope contains an affidavit that the voter must sign.

Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 54, §§ 92, 94 (2021).

Absentee ballots must be received by the hour before the close of polls on election day. Massachusetts does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 54, § 95 (2021).

Massachusetts permits each city and town to choose to provide a drop box for ballot return.

A voter who receives the ballot by mail may return it by mail to the city or town clerk in the envelope provided, via a secured municipal drop-box, or such voter or a family member may deliver it in person to the office of the city or town clerk.

Cities and towns may choose to provide multiple drop boxes, but all drop boxes must be able to be secured and monitored, to ensure ballot security.

All early voting sites must accept in-person delivery of mail-in ballots during early voting hours. Early voting site drop boxes must be monitored by an election worker. Outdoor drop boxes must be secured and emptied regularly.

Drop boxes must be staffed at the close of polls on election day. An election official must be guarding the drop box at the close of polls on election day, so that the box can be emptied precisely at 8:00 p.m.

Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 54, § 92 (2021); Amended by St.2020, c.115, §§ 1-2,; Secretary of the Commonwealth Elections Division, Election Advisory #20-01: Regarding Return of Ballots via Secured Drop Box (Aug. 17, 2020).

Massachusetts provides in-person early voting to all eligible voters before election day at the city hall election office and town clerk’s office. The early voting period begins 11 days before the election and ends on the second business day before the election (7 days).

In-person early voting will take place during regular business hours, however, the city or town clerks may provide additional hours (including weekends) at their discretion.

Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 54, §25B (2021).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 78:00 pm (13 hours).

Municipalities can open polling places as early as 5:45 a.m. All polling places are required to remain open for at least 13 hours.

Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 54, § 64.

Massachusetts does not require registered voters to present identification documents at the polls. Before casting a ballot, voters must state their name and, if requested, address. The election official will then announce the name of the voter and confirm that the voter is on the registration list.

Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 54, § 76 (2021).

Within 150 feet of a polling place no person shall solicit votes for or against, or otherwise promote or oppose, any person or political party or position on a ballot question, to be voted on at the current election. No campaign material intended to influence the vote of a voter in the ongoing election, including campaign literature, buttons, signs, and ballot stickers, may be posted, exhibited, circulated, or distributed in the polling place, in the building where it is located, on the building walls, on the premises where the building stands, or within 150 feet of an entrance door to the building.

Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 54, § 65 (2021).

Michigan

The elected Secretary of State oversees elections.

The Bureau of Elections is responsible for:

  • Administering the state's election and campaign finance law
  • Providing information about registering to vote and voting
  • Providing oversight and training to local election officials
  • Assisting candidates running for statewide offices with the requirements for filing nominating petitions, affidavits of identity and campaign finance reports
  • Administering the Michigan Electronic Reporting and Tracking System, which allows candidates to file campaign finance reports electronically
  • Administering the campaign finance database, which allows the public to access campaign finance reports via the department's Web
  • Maintaining the state's Qualified Voter File, an electronic database of registered voters
  • Administering the state's casino and lobbyists disclosure laws
  • Providing support to the Board of State Canvassers

168.31

Yes, Michigan implemented an automatic voter registration system in 2019 via ballot measure. Eligible voters in Michigan are automatically registered to vote in the state when interacting with the state regarding driver’s license or state ID card. Individuals may choose to opt-out of the automatic registration during the transaction with the state agency.

Mich. Const. art. II, § 4(d); see also Mich. Comp. Laws § 168.493a (2018).

Michigan offers same day and election day voter registration during the early voting period or on election day at the city or town clerk's office where the voter resides. Individuals applying to register during this period must provide proof of residency in the city or township to vote a regular ballot.

Otherwise, voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than 15 days before the election.

Mich. Comp. Laws § 168.497, 168.499e (2018).

In Michigan, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of prison time.

Mich. Comp. Laws § 168.758b (2018).

No, Michigan does not conduct all-mail elections.

Mich. Comp. Laws § 168.759 (2021).

Michigan allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any registered voter may vote absentee with no reason given.

Mich. Comp. Laws § 168.759 (2021).

In Michigan, applications for absentee ballots must be received by mail or online no later than 5 p.m. the Friday before the election (4 days). If you’re already registered at your current address, you can request an absent voter ballot in person at your clerk’s office anytime up to 4 p.m. on the day prior to the election, this ballot must be completed at the clerk’s office.

Mich. Comp. Laws § 168.759 (2021).

Michigan does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

The voter's signature on the ballot is checked against the qualified voter file.

Mich. Comp. Laws § 168.761 (2021)

Absentee ballots must be received by the time the polls close on election day. Michigan does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Mich. Comp. Laws § 168.765 (2020).

Michigan permits the use of absent voter ballot drop boxes, which may be located indoors or outdoors.

Whether located indoors or outdoors, the drop box must be securely locked and be designed to prevent the removal of absent voter ballots when locked. If the drop box is located in an area that is not continuously staffed, it must be secured to prevent the removal of the absent voter ballot drop box from its location.

Only a city or township clerk, his or her deputy clerk, or a sworn member of his or her staff, is authorized to collect absent voter ballots from an absent voter ballot drop box.

Mich. Comp. Laws § 168.761d (2020).

Michigan provides "in-person absentee" voting before election day at the offices of town clerks. Michigan allows no-excuse absentee voting, but an elector wishing to vote early in person must apply for and receive an absentee ballot prior to doing so.

The state constitution guarantees in-person absentee voting that begins 40 days before the election and ends the day before the election. Absentee ballots must be made available during regular business hours, at least 8 hours per day, and the Saturday and/or Sunday prior to the election.

Mich. Const., Art. II §4.

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 8:00 pm (12 hours).

Anyone in line to vote at 8 PM must be allowed to vote.

Mich. Comp. Laws § 168.720 (2020).

Michigan requires voters to provide personal identification with a photo before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • Michigan driver's license
  • Michigan personal identification card
  • Driver's license or personal identification card issued by another state
  • Federal or state government-issued photo ID
  • U.S. passport
  • Military ID with photo
  • Student ID with photo—from a high school or accredited institution of higher education
  • Tribal ID with photo

An individual who does not possess, or did not bring to the polls, photo ID, may sign an affidavit and vote a regular ballot.

Michigan's voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

Mich. Comp. Laws § 168.523 (2018).

Electioneering is prohibited within 100 feet of the entrance to building of the polling place. This includes election-related clothing and buttons.

A person shall not persuade or endeavor to persuade a person to vote for or against any particular candidate or party ticket or for or against any ballot question that is being voted on at the election. A person shall not place or distribute stickers, other than stickers provided by the election officials pursuant to law, in a polling room, in a compartment connected to a polling room, or within 100 feet from any entrance to a building in which a polling place is located. A person shall not solicit donations, gifts, contributions, purchase of tickets, or similar demands, or request or obtain signatures on petitions in a polling room, in a compartment connected to a polling room, or within 100 feet from any entrance to a building in which a polling place is located. On election day, a person shall not post, display, or distribute in a polling place, in any hallway used by voters to enter or exit a polling place, or within 100 feet of an entrance to a building in which a polling place is located any material that directly or indirectly makes reference to an election, a candidate, or a ballot question.

Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 168.744, 168.744a (2021).

Minnesota

The Minnesota Secretary of State is a statewide elected position and the state's chief election officer.

Minn Stat. Sec. 204B.27

No, Minnesota does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Minnesota offers same day and election day voter registration during the in-person absentee voting period or on election day at the precinct polling place where the voter resides, county offices, or in-person absentee voting centers. Voters registering on election day must provide proof of residence.

Otherwise, voter registration must be received no later than 21 days before the election.

Minn. Stat. § 201.054 (2008).

In Minnesota, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their full sentence, including prison time, parole, and probation.

Minn. Stat. § 201.145 (2008).

No, Minnesota does not conduct all-mail elections.

Minnesota allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any registered voter may vote at any election by absentee ballot. An application for absentee ballots for any election may be submitted at any time not less than 1 day before the day of that election.

For a federal, state, or county election, an absentee ballot application may alternatively be submitted electronically through a secure website that shall be maintained by the secretary of state for this purpose.

Minn. Stat. § 203B.02 (2014); see also Minn. Stat. § 203B.04 (2014).

In Minnesota, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person, online, or by mail no later than 1 day before the election.

Minn. Stat. § 203B.04 (2014).

Minnesota does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

The return envelope for an absentee ballot has space for the applicant to include space for either the applicant's driver's license, state ID number, or last 4 digits of his or her SSN. In addition, there must be a signed and sworn statement indicating that the voter meets all the requirements for voting by absentee ballot and a space for a witness to sign who is either a notary, a registered voter, or another individual authorized to register oaths.

Minn. Stat. § 203B.07 (2020).

Absentee ballots must be received by 8:00 pm on election day for mailed ballots and by 3:00 pm on election day for hand-delivered ballots. Minnesota does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Minn. Stat. § 203B.08 (2015).

Minnesota permits local election officials to provide ballot drop boxes during the absentee period.

Drop boxes should be monitored at all times they are accessible to the public. This could be in the form of a city or county staff person or in the form of video monitoring. Drop boxes should be physically secured to prevent an unauthorized individual from moving or removing the drop box. Drop boxes that are located outside a government building should be fastened to a building or structure, bolted to a concrete pad, or attached to another similarly secure structure.

Counties and cities should ensure that the drop box is checked at least once a day but no less than is necessary to ensure that the ballot box does not get so full that ballots cannot be deposited.

Minn. R. 8210.3000 Subp. 9 (2016); Office of Minnesota Secretary of State, Use of Ballot Drop Boxes for Secure Absentee and Mail Ballot Return (Sep. 11, 2020).

Minnesota provides "in-person absentee" voting before election day at the office of the county auditor and at any other polling place designated by the county auditor. Minnesota allows no-excuse absentee voting, but an elector wishing to vote early in person must apply for and receive an absentee ballot prior to doing so.

The in-person absentee period begins 46 days before the election and ends at 5:00 pm the day before the election. The office must be open from 10:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. on Saturday and until 5:00 p.m. on the day immediately preceding an election unless that day falls on a Saturday or Sunday.

Minn. Stat. § 203B.081 (2016); see also M.S.A. § 203B.085 (2015).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 8:00 pm (13 hours).

If a town has less than 500 inhabitants, it may delay opening until 10:00 am. Individuals waiting in the polling place or waiting in line at the door at the time of closing are allowed to vote.

Minn. Stat. Sec. 204C.05 (2015).

Minnesota does not require registered voters to present identification documents at the polls. Before casting a ballot, voters must sign the polling place roster or voter signature certificate and, if requested, state their name, address, and date of birth.

Minn. Stat. § 204C.10 (2020).

Electioneering within 100 feet of a polling place is prohibited.

A person may not display campaign material, post signs, ask, solicit, or in any manner try to induce or persuade a voter within a polling place or within 100 feet of the building in which a polling place is situated, or anywhere on the public property on which a polling place is situated. A person may not provide political badges, political buttons, or other political insignia to be worn at or about the polling place on the day of a primary or election. A political badge, political button, or other political insignia may not be worn at or about the polling place on primary or election day.

Minn. Stat. §§ 204C.06, 211B.11 (2020).

Mississippi

The Mississippi Secretary of State is a statewide elected position and the state's chief election officer.

At the local level, election oversight duties are split between the County Registrar and the County Clerk.

Mississippi Elections Code § 23-15-211.1

No, Mississippi does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Mississippi does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked or delivered in person no later than 30 days before the election.

Mississippi does not offer an online registration form, you must fill out a paper voter registration application.

Miss. Code Ann. § 23-15-11 (2009).

In Mississippi, a person convicted of a felony that is not on the list of barred crimes never lose their right to vote, even while they are incarcerated.

A person convicted of one of the 23 barred crimes loses voting rights and cannot regain the right to vote unless restored by the governor. The 23 barred crimes are: voter fraud, murder, rape, bribery, theft, arson, obtaining money or goods under false pretense, perjury, forgery, embezzlement, bigamy, armed robbery, extortion, felony bad check, felony shoplifting, larceny, receiving stolen property, robbery, timber larceny, unlawful taking of a motor vehicle, statutory rape, carjacking or larceny under lease or rental agreement.

Miss. Const. art. 12, § 241.

No, Mississippi does not conduct all-mail elections.

Mississippi requires an excuse for not voting on election day in order to request an absentee ballot.

In order to vote by absentee ballot in Mississippi, you must meet one of the following criteria:

  • you will be away from your county on Election Day for any reason;

  • you are a student, teacher, or administrator at a school whose studies or employment there necessitates your absence from your county on Election Day; or you are the spouse or dependent thereof;

  • you have a temporary or permanent physical disability that renders you unable to vote in person without substantial hardship;

  • you are the parent, spouse, or dependent of a person with a temporary or permanent physical disability who is hospitalized outside of their county of residence or more than 50 miles away, and you (the parent, spouse or dependent) will be with that person on Election Day;

  • you are 65 years of age or older;

  • you will be unable to vote in person because you are required to be at work on Election Day during the times at which the polls will be open;

  • you are a member, spouse, or dependent of the congressional delegation;

  • you are a disabled war veteran (or spouse or dependant of such a person) in a hospital;

  • you are a member (or spouse or dependant of such a person) of the Merchant Marine or American Red Cross.

Miss. Code Ann. § 23-15-673 (2009).

In Mississippi, there is no specific deadline to request an absentee ballot. The state recommends requesting a ballot at least 7 days before election day.

Miss. Code Ann. § 23-15-625 (2009).

Mississippi does not require a copy of voter identification but does require the signature of a witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Voters must sign a certificate and the ballot must also be accompanied by an attesting witness certificate.

Miss. Code Ann. §§ 23-15-627, 23-15-635, 23-15-633, 23-15-639, 23-15-641 (2009).

Absentee ballots must be postmarked by election day and received no later than 5 business days after the election (7 days).

Miss. Code Ann. § 23-15-637 (2009).

Mississippi does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

Mississippi does not offer in-person voting before election day.

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 7:00 pm (12 hours).

Miss. Code Ann. § 23-15-541 (2009).

Mississippi requires all voters to provide personal identification with a photo before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • Driver's license
  • Photo ID card issued by a branch, department, or entity of the State of Mississippi United States passport
  • Government employee ID card
  • Firearms license
  • Student photo ID issued by an accredited Mississippi university, college or community/junior college
  • United States military ID
  • Tribal photo ID
  • Any other photo ID issued by any branch, department, agency or entity of the United States government or any state government
  • Mississippi Voter Identification Card

An individual without ID can cast an affidavit ballot which will be counted if the individual returns to the appropriate circuit clerk within 5 days after the election and shows a government-issued photo ID.

Voters with a religious objection to being photographed may vote an affidavit ballot, which will be counted if the voter returns to the appropriate circuit clerk within 5 days after the election and executes an affidavit that the religious exemption applies.

Mississippi's voter ID requirements are considered "strict" because voters without acceptable identification must vote on a provisional ballot and also take additional steps after election day for it to be counted.

Miss. Code Ann. § 23-15-563 (2017).

It is unlawful for any person to post or distribute cards, posters, or other campaign literature within 150 feet of any entrance of the building wherein any election is being held.

A space 30 feet in every direction from the polls, or the room in which the election is held, shall be kept open and clear of all persons except the election officers and 2 challengers.

Miss. Code Ann. § 23-15-895 (2009).

Missouri

The secretary of state is a statewide election position and shall be the chief state election official responsible for the administration and coordination of state responsibilities pursuant to the Help America Vote Act of 2002. The secretary is authorized to appoint members to commissions, develop and submit plans, set voting systems standards and compliance deadlines, and shall be responsible for providing information regarding voter registration procedures and absentee ballot procedures to be used by absent uniformed services voters and overseas voters.

Missouri Revised Statutes 28.035

No, Missouri does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Missouri does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than the fourth Wednesday (27 days) prior to an election.

Mo. Rev. Stat. § 115.135 (2015).

In Missouri, a person convicted of a felony or a misdemeanor connected with the right of suffrage loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their full sentence, including prison time, parole, and probation.

Mo. Rev. Stat. § 115.133 (2003).

No, Missouri does not conduct all-mail elections.

Missouri requires an excuse for not voting on election day in order to request an absentee ballot.

A Missouri voter may vote by absentee ballot if such voter expects to be prevented from going to the polls to vote on election day due to:

  • Absence on election day from the jurisdiction of the election authority in which such voter is registered to vote;
  • Incapacity or confinement due to illness or physical disability, including a person who is primarily responsible for the physical care of a person who is incapacitated or confined due to illness or disability;
  • Religious belief or practice;
  • Employment as an election authority, as a member of an election authority, or by an election authority at a location other than such voter's polling place;
  • Incarceration, provided all qualifications for voting are retained; or
  • Certified participation in the address confidentiality program because of safety concerns.

Any interstate former resident may vote by absentee ballot for presidential and vice presidential electors.

Any intrastate new resident may vote by absentee ballot at the election for presidential and vice presidential electors, United States senator, representative in Congress, statewide elected officials and statewide questions, propositions and amendments from such resident's new jurisdiction of residence after registering to vote in such resident's new jurisdiction of residence.

Mo. Rev. Stat. § 115.277 (2020).

In Missouri, applications for absentee ballots must be received by mail no later than 5:00 p.m. on the second Wednesday before the election (13 days). If delivered in person, the deadline is 5:00 p.m. on the day before the election.

Mo. Rev. Stat. § 115.279 (2018).

Missouri does not require a copy of voter identification but does require the signature of a notary on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

An application for an absentee ballot must be signed by the voter and witnessed by an election official receiving the ballot, a notary public, or other officer authorized by law to administer oaths. Absentee ballot return envelopes are printed with a statement that must be signed by the voter under penalty of perjury.

Mo. Rev. Stat. § 115.291 (2020).

Absentee ballots must be received by the time the polls close on election day. Missouri does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Mo. Rev. Stat. § 115.293 (2016).

Missouri does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

Missouri does not offer in-person voting before election day.

On election day, polls are open for voting from 6:00 am to 7:00 pm (13 hours).

At 7 p.m., all voters at the polls, including any in line to vote, shall be permitted to vote.

Mo. Rev. Stat. § 115.407 (2016).

Missouri requires voters to provide personal identification before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • Identification issued by the state of Missouri, an agency of the state, or a local election authority of the state;
  • identification issued by the United States government or agency thereof;
  • identification issued by an institution of higher education, including a university, college, vocational and technical school, located within the state of Missouri; or
  • a copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, paycheck, government check or other government document that contains the name and address of the voter.

If you do not possess any of these forms of identification but are a registered voter, you may cast a provisional ballot. Your provisional ballot will count if: (1) you return to your polling place on Election Day with a photo ID; or (2) the signature on your provisional ballot envelope is determined by your local election authority to match the signature on your voter registration record.

Missouri's voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

A provision that required voters without identification to submit an affidavit was struck down in a court decision in January 2020.

Mo. Rev. Stat. § 115.427 (2017).

In Missouri, the following activities are prohibited within 25 feet of the building's outer door closest to the polling place: exit polling, surveying, sampling, electioneering, distributing election literature, posting signs, or placing vehicles bearing signs with respect to any candidate or question to be voted on at an election on election day.

Mo. Rev. Stat. § 115.637 (2015).

Montana

In Montana, the secretary of state is the chief election officer of this state, and it is the secretary of state's responsibility to obtain and maintain uniformity in the application, operation, and interpretation of the election laws.

Montana Code Annotated 13-1-201

No, Montana does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Montana does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Effective Apr. 19, 2021, SB 176 (2021), Montana offers late voter registration until noon the day before election day at county election offices. Photo ID or proof of residency is required.

Otherwise, voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than 30 days before the election.

Before the 2021 law, Montana had offered election day voter registration.

Mont. Code Ann. §§ 13-2-301, 13-2-304 (2021).

In Montana, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of prison time.

Mont. Const. article IV, § 2.

No, Montana does not conduct all-mail elections.

Montana allows no-excuse absentee voting. A legally registered Montana elector or provisionally registered elector is entitled to vote by absentee ballot.

Mont. Code Ann. § 13-13-201 (2019).

In Montana, applications for absentee ballots must be received by mail no later than noon 1 day before election day.

Mont. Code Ann. § 13-13-211 (2013).

Montana does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Effective Apr. 19, 2021, SB 169 (2021), returning an absentee ballot requires either the elector's Montana driver's license number, Montana state identification card number, or the last four digits of the applicant's social security number.

Mont. Code Ann. § 13-13-213 (2019).

Absentee ballots must be received by the time the polls close on election day. Montana does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Mont. Code Ann. § 13-13-232 (2021).

Montana permits the use of ballot drop boxes ("places of deposit").

The election administrator shall designate the election administrator's office and may designate one or more places in the political subdivision in which the election is being conducted as places of deposit where ballots may be returned in person by the elector or the elector's agent or designee.

Prior to election day, ballots may be returned to any designated place of deposit during the days and times set by the election administrator and within the regular business hours of the location.

On election day, each location designated as a place of deposit must be open and ballots may be returned during election hours. The election administrator may designate certain locations as election day places of deposit, and any designated location functions as a place of deposit only on election day.

Each place of deposit must be staffed by at least two election officials.

Mont. Code Ann. § 13-19-307 (2011).

Montana provides "in-person absentee" voting before election day at the elections offices. Montana allows no-excuse absentee voting, but an elector wishing to vote early in person must request an absentee ballot prior to doing so.

The in-person absentee period begins 30 days before the election and ends at noon the day before the election.

Mont. Code Ann. § 13-13-205 (2021).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 8:00 pm (13 hours).

A polling place having fewer than 400 registered electors who intend to vote at the polling place must be open from at least noon to 8 p.m. or until all registered electors in any precinct have voted, at which time that precinct in the polling place must be closed immediately.

Mont. Code Ann. § 13-1-106 (2021).

Montana requires voters to provide personal identification before voting at the polls.

Effective April 21, 2021, SB 169 (2021), the following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • Montana driver’s license

  • Montana state identification

  • Military identification card

  • Tribal photo identification

  • United States passport

  • Montana concealed carry permit

Otherwise, an elector will need to show a photo identification that shows the elector's name, including but not limited to a school district or postsecondary education photo identification, in addition to any of the following: a current utility bill, bank statement, paycheck, government check, or other government document that shows the elector's name and current address.

If the identification presented is insufficient to verify the elector's identity and eligibility to vote or if the elector's name does not appear in the precinct register, the elector may sign the precinct register and cast a provisional ballot. If the voter's signature on the provisional ballot affirmation matches the signature on the voter's registration record, the ballot is counted.

Montana's voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

Mont. Code Ann. § 13-13-114 (2021).

In Montana, electioneering within 100 feet of a polling place is prohibited.

A person may not aid or promote the success or defeat of any candidate or ballot issue to be voted upon at the election. On election day, a candidate, a family member of a candidate, or a worker or volunteer for the candidate's campaign may not distribute alcohol, tobacco, food, drink, or anything of value to a voter within a polling place or a building in which an election is being held or within 100 feet of an entrance to the building in which the polling place is located. A person may not buy, sell, give, wear, or display at or about the polls on an election day any badge, button, or other insignia that is designed or tends to aid or promote the success or defeat of any candidate or ballot issue to be voted upon at the election. A person within a polling place or any building in which an election is being held may not solicit from an elector, before or after the elector has marked a ballot and returned it to an election judge, information as to whether the elector intends to vote or has voted for or against a candidate or ballot issue.

Mont. Code Ann. § 13-35-211 (2021).

Nebraska

In Nebraska, the Secretary of State supervises the conduct of primary and general elections in the state. The secretary also adopts and promulgates rules and regulations as necessary for elections. It is also the job of the secretary to decide disputed points of election law.

Counties will also have a single election commissioner or a county board of commissioners depending on the population of the county.

Revised Statutes Chapter 32-201, 202, 203, 205, 207, 208, 209, 210 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 243, 304, 321, 504, 507, 528, 704, 705, 712, 907, 939.02, 1035, 1040, 1118, 1405, 1408, 1409, 1412, 1501

No, Nebraska does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Nebraska does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than the third Friday (18 days) before the election.

Neb. Rev. Stat. § 32-302 (2008); Neb. Rev. Stat. § 32-310 (2009); Neb. Rev. Stat. § 32-321 (2014).

In Nebraska, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their full sentence, including prison time, parole, and probation plus a waiting period of 2 years after completion of the full sentence.

Neb. Rev. Stat. § 32-313 (2005).

No, Nebraska does not conduct all-mail elections. However, select counties can apply to be a "mail only precinct."

432 Neb. Admin. Code § 001 - 004.

Nebraska allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any registered Nebraska voter may apply for an absentee ballot and vote by mail.

Neb. Rev. Stat. § 32-938 (2016); see also Neb. Rev. Stat. § 32-941 (2016).

In Nebraska, applications for absentee ballots must be received no later than the close of business on the second Friday before the election (11 days).

Neb. Rev. Stat. §32-941 (2016).

Nebraska does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Requires the voter to sign the back of the return envelope where a "voter's oath" is written.

Neb. Rev. Stat. § 32-947 (2017).

Absentee ballots must be received by the time the polls close on election day. Nebraska does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Neb. Rev. Stat. § 32-950 (2005).

Under a 2020 law, Nebraska counties with less than 10,000 inhabitants (currently 64 of 91 counties) must maintain at least one secure ballot drop-box available for voters to deposit completed ballots 24 hours per day, starting at least 10 days before the election through 8:00 pm on election day.

Neb. Rev. Stat. § 32-960 (2020).

Nebraska provides no-excuse absentee voting before election day at county election offices. Nebraska allows no-excuse absentee voting, but an elector wishing to vote early in person must apply for and receive an absentee ballot prior to doing so.

The in-person absentee period begins at most 30 days before the election and ends when the polls close on election day.

Neb. Rev. Stat. § 32-942 (2015).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 7:00 pm for those located in Mountain Time Zone and from 8:00 am to 8:00 pm for those located in Central Time Zone (12 hours).

Neb. Rev. Stat. § 32-908 (2005).

Nebraska does not require registered voters to present identification documents at the polls. Before casting a ballot, voters must place and record their signature in the sign-in register.

Neb. Rev. Stat. § 32-913 (2018).

In Nebraska, electioneering is restricted within 200 feet of a polling place

Electioneering is defined as deliberate, visible display or audible or physical dissemination of information for the purpose of advocating for or against: any candidate on the ballot for the election, any elected officeholder of a state constitutional office or federal office, any political party on the ballot.

Information includes: a candidate's name, likeness, logo, or symbol, a ballot measure's number, title, subject matter, logo, or symbol, or a button, hat, pencil, pen, shirt, sign, or sticker containing information previously defined.

Neb. Rev. Stat. § 32-1524 (2019).

Nevada

The Secretary of State shall serve as the Chief Officer of Elections for this State. As Chief Officer, the Secretary of State is responsible for the execution and enforcement of the provisions of state and federal law relating to elections in this State.

NRS 293.124

Yes, Nevada implemented an automatic voter registration system in 2020 via ballot measure. Eligible voters in Nevada are automatically registered to vote in the state when applying or renewing a driver's license or ID card with the Nevada Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV). Individuals may choose to opt-out of the automatic registration during the transaction with the DMV.

Nev. Rev. Stat. § 293.5752 (2018).

Nevada offers same day and election day voter registration during the early voting period through election day at any polling location in which the elector is eligible to vote. Individuals must show a valid Nevada driver’s license or identification card at the polls to vote. If the identification does not have your current address, the voter must also show proof of residency. During early voting, it must be verified that the elector is qualified to register to vote in order to cast a regular ballot, or the voter must cast a provisional ballot. Voters registering on election day are conditionally registered and must vote a provisional ballot.

Otherwise, voter registration is due 5 days before election day if registering online, and if by mail, an application must be postmarked 28 days before election day.

Nev. Rev. Stat. §§ 293.560, 293.5847 (2019).

In Nevada, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of prison time.

Nev. Rev. Stat. §§ 176A.850, 213.157 (2019).

Currently, Nevada does not conduct all-mail elections.

Effective Jan. 1, 2022, AB 321 (2021), Nevada will conduct all-mail elections. The county and city clerks will send each active registered voter a mail ballot for all elections. A voter may elect not to receive a mail ballot by submitting a written notice to the county or city clerk.

Nevada allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any registered voter may vote at any election by absentee ballot.

Effective Jan. 1, 2022, AB 321 (2021), which enacted a new all-mail voting system, voters will not need to request a ballot, and instead automatically receive one. Therefore, the state will allow no-excuse absentee voting.

Nev. Rev. Stat. § 293.313 (2020).

In Nevada, currently, applications for absentee ballots must be received no later than 14 days before the election.

Effective Jan. 1, 2022, AB 321 (2021), which enacted a new all-mail voting system, voters will not need to request a ballot, and instead automatically receive one.

Nev. Rev. Stat. § 293.313 (2020).

Nevada does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Nevada uses signature matching, with election officials matching the signature on the absentee ballot envelope with the voter registration signature.

Effective Jan. 1, 2022, AB 321 (2021), which enacted a new all-mail voting system, voters will not need to request a ballot, and instead automatically receive one. The new law will allow a voter who has failed to affix his or her signature on an absent, mailing or mail ballot or for whom there is a reasonable question of fact as to whether the signature used for the absent, mailing or mail ballot matches the signature of the voter to provide a signature or confirmation not later than 5:00 pm on the sixth day following an election or the ninth day following an affected election.

Nev. Rev. Stat. § 293.325 (2020).

Absentee ballots must be postmarked by election day and received no later than 5:00 pm 7 days after the election.

Effective Jan. 1, 2022, AB 321 (2021), which enacted a new all-mail voting system, mailed ballots must be received by 5:00 pm on the fourth day following an election.

Nev. Rev. Stat. § 293.317 (2020).

Nevada, generally, does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

Nevada enacted a law in 2020 providing for the use of ballot drop boxes only when a state of emergency has been declared (e.g., pandemic). Nevada refers to this situation as an "affected election."

Nev. Rev. Stat. § 293.8861 (2020).

Nevada provides in-person early voting to all eligible voters before election day. The early voting period begins the third Saturday before the election and ends on the Friday before the election (14 days).

The county clerk may open on any Sunday or federal holiday that falls within the early voting period and may require a permanent polling place for early voting to remain open until 8 pm on any Saturday within the early voting period. A permanent polling place for early voting must remain open for at least 8 hours a day Monday through Friday and 4 hours on Saturday.

Nev. Rev. Stat. § 293.3568 (2020).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 7:00 pm (12 hours).

Nev. Rev. Stat. § 293.273 (2020).

Nevada does not require registered voters to present identification documents at the polls. Before casting a ballot, voters must record their name and provide an affirmation.

Nev. Rev. Stat. § 293.277.

Electioneering within 100 feet of a polling place is prohibited.

Electioneering includes:

  • Soliciting a vote or speaking to a voter on the subject of marking the voter’s ballot.

  • Posting signs relating to the support of or opposition to a candidate, ballot question, or political party.

  • Distributing literature relating to the support of or opposition to a candidate, ballot question, or political party.

  • Using loudspeakers to broadcast information relating to the support of or opposition to a candidate, ballot question, or political party.

  • Buying, selling, wearing, or displaying any badge, button, or other insigne which is designed or tends to aid or promote the success or defeat of any political party or a candidate or ballot question to be voted upon at that election.

  • Soliciting signatures to any kind of petition.

Nev. Rev. Stat. § 293.740 (2020).

New Hampshire

The Chief Election Official in the state of New Hampshire is the Secretary of State. In New Hampshire the Secretary of State is appointed by the state legislature. On a local level election oversight is divided between the Town/City Clerk and the Superintendent of Checklist/Board of Registrars.

N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 669:1.

No, New Hampshire does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 659.

New Hampshire offers election day voter registration at the voter's regular polling place or early voting site. Voters must provide sufficient identification and proof of residency in order to receive a ballot. Those who present insufficient photo identification to get their picture taken at the polls and sign an affidavit. Voters that do not bring a valid photo ID execute a challenged voter affidavit form and will later receive a letter requesting confirmation they voted.

Otherwise, voter registration by mail must be received between 6 and 13 days before the election (depending on the town).

New Hampshire does not offer an online registration form, you must fill out a paper voter registration application.

N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 654:7-a (2017); N.H. Dep't of State - Register to Vote (last accessed Apr. 18, 2021).

In New Hampshire, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of prison time.

N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 607-A:2 (2019).

No, New Hampshire does not conduct all-mail elections.

N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 659, et seq. (2021).

New Hampshire requires an excuse for not voting on election day in order to request an absentee ballot.

Voter may request a ballot for specific reasons including being absent from the voter’s city or town, a religious observance, disability or illness, and employment commitments (including caregiving and military service) during the entire time the polls are open. Absentee ballots may also be available when a weather emergency impacts an election.

N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 659:50 (2019).

In New Hampshire, applications for absentee ballots have no specific deadline on when they must be received, but it is recommended to be requested at least 7 days in advance.

N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §659 (2014).

New Hampshire does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

The voter has to sign an affidavit that is on the absentee ballot envelope.

N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 657:1 (2021).

Absentee ballots must be received by 5:00 pm on election day. New Hampshire does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 657:22 (2017).

New Hampshire does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §659 (2021).

New Hampshire does not offer in-person voting before election day.

N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 659 (2017).

On election day, the hours a polling place is open for voting varies by location but must be open from at least 10:00 am to 7:00 pm (9 hours).

Election hours need to be determined by a town/city at least 30 days before an election.

N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §659:4 (2017).

New Hampshire requires voters to provide personal identification before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • driver's license,
  • photo ID from the NH DMV,
  • U.S. Armed services ID card,
  • U.S. passport,
  • Valid Student ID,
  • any other photo ID issued by federal, state, county, or municipal government.

If a voter does not have valid photo identification, the ballot clerk shall inform the voter that the voter may execute a challenged voter affidavit. Unless the voter has a religious objection to having his or her photo taken, the moderator will take his or her photo and affix it to the affidavit. The voter may then cast a regular ballot.

Within 90 days of the election, the Secretary of State is required to mail a nonforwardable letter to each voter who executed a challenged voter affidavit, notifying the person that a person who did not present valid photo identification voted using his or her name and address and instruct the person to return the letter within 90 days. Any person who does not return it will then have their information turned over to the Attorney General to be investigated for voter fraud.

New Hampshire's voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 659:1, 659:2 (2021).

No person shall distribute, wear, or post at a polling place any campaign material in the form of a poster, card, handbill, placard, picture, pin, sticker, circular, or article of clothing which is intended to influence the action of the voter within the building where the election is being held. No person who is a candidate for office or who is representing or working for a candidate shall distribute any campaign materials or perform any electioneering activities or any activity which affects the safety, welfare, and rights of voters within a corridor 10 feet wide and extending a distance from the entrance door of the building as determined by the moderator where the election is being held.

N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 659:1, 659:2 (2021).

New Jersey

The Secretary of State shall be the chief election official.

N.J.S.A. 52:16A-98

Yes, New Jersey implemented an automatic voter registration system in 2018 via legislation. Eligible voters in New Jersey are automatically registered to vote in the state when applying for a motor vehicle driver's license, examination permit, probationary driver's license, or non-driver identification card. Individuals may choose to opt-out of the automatic registration during the transaction with the state agency.

N.J. Stat. Ann. §§ 39:2-3.2 (2018).

New Jersey does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than 21 days before the election.

N.J. Stat. Ann. § 19:31-6 (West 2020).

In New Jersey, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of prison time.

N.J. Stat. Ann. 19:4-1 (2021).

No, New Jersey does not conduct all-mail elections.

N.J. Stat. Ann. 19:63-3 (2021).

New Jersey allows no-excuse absentee voting. A qualified voter shall be entitled to vote using a mail-in ballot in all future elections, including general elections, held in the state, in which the voter is eligible to vote; or in any single election held in the state.

N.J. Stat. Ann. § 19:63-3 (2021).

In New Jersey, applications for absentee ballots must be received by mail no later than 7 days before the election. Any voter who fails to apply for a mail-in ballot before the seven-day period may apply in person to the county clerk for a mail-in ballot up to 3 p.m. of the day before the election.

N.J. Stat. Ann. 19:63-3 (2021).

New Jersey does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

The county board of elections shall, promptly after receiving each mail-in ballot, remove the inner envelope containing the ballot from the outer envelope and shall compare the signature and the information contained on the flap of the inner envelope with the signature and information contained in the respective requests for mail-in ballots, and the signature and information contained in the Statewide voter registration system.

N.J. Stat. Ann. § 19:63-17 (2021).

Absentee ballots must be postmarked by election day and received no later than 144 hours after the polls close (6 days).

N.J. Stat. Ann. § 19:63-22 (West 2021).

New Jersey requires each county to establish ballot drop boxes where voters may deposit their voted mail-in ballots at least 45 days before the election.

A ballot drop box shall mean a secured drop box that is not required to be within view of a live person for monitoring. All ballot drop boxes shall be available for use by a voter 24 hours a day and shall be placed at locations equipped with security cameras that allow for surveillance of the ballot drop box.

At least one ballot drop box shall be located at each of the following locations:

  • any county government building in which the main office of the county clerk is located;
  • any municipal government building in which the main office of the municipal clerk is located in municipalities with populations larger than 5,000 residents;
  • the main campus of each county community college;
  • the main campus of each State college or university; and
  • the main campus of each independent four-year college or university with enrollments larger than 5,000 students.

Each county shall have no fewer than 10 ballot drop boxes.

N.J. Stat. Ann. § 19:63-16.1 (2021).

Effective Mar. 30, 2021, SB 3203 (2021), New Jersey provides in-person early voting to all eligible voters before election day. For general elections, the early voting period will begin 10 days before the election and end on the day before the election (9 days). At a minimum, early voting locations must be open Monday through Saturday from 10:00 am to 8:00 pm and from 10:00 am to 6:00 pm on Sunday.

Depending on their size, counties must designate at least three to seven polling places for early, in-person voting, though they can set up more if they choose.

N.J. Stat. Ann. § 19:15A-1 (2021).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm (14 hours).

N.J. Stat. Ann. § 19:15-2 (West 2021).

New Jersey does not require registered voters to present identification documents at the polls. Before casting a ballot, voters must record their name in the poll book. The election official will then compare the signature to signature on file.

N.J. Stat. Ann. § 19:15-17 (West 2010).

New Jersey law provides that if a person shall distribute or display any circular or printed matter or offer any suggestion or solicit any support for any candidate, party or public question within the polling place or room or within a distance of 100 feet of the outside entrance to such polling place or room, that person is guilty of a disorderly persons offense.

N.J. Stat. Ann. § 19:34-15 (West 2020).

New Mexico

In New Mexico the Secretary of State is in charge of election oversight. The Secretary of State is an elected position in the state.

N. M. S. A., § 1-2-2.

Yes, New Mexico implemented an automatic voter registration system in 2020 via legislation. Eligible voters in New Mexico are automatically registered to vote in the state when they complete a license application with the Motor Vehicle Division (MVD). MVD customers may choose to opt-out of the automatic registration during the transaction with the MVD.

N.M. Stat. Ann. § 1-4-5.8 (2019).

New Mexico offers same day and election day voter registration during the 28 days prior to the election until the Saturday prior to election day and also on election day. The voter wishing to same day register must provide either a New Mexico driver's license or ID card, any current document that contains a county address along with a photo ID, or a valid student ID from a post-secondary school located in the state. If an early voting site does not have real-time access to the statewide electronic voter file, the voter will be issued a provisional ballot.

Otherwise, voter registration applications must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than 28 days before the election. However, an application may be accepted through the Friday following the deadline if the application is postmarked before the deadline.

N.M. Stat. Ann. § 1-4-5.7 (2011); see also N.M. Stat. Ann. § 1-4-8 (2019).

In New Mexico, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their full sentence, including prison time, parole, and probation.

N. M. Stat. Ann. § 1-4-27.1 (2011).

No, New Mexico does not conduct all-mail elections.

New Mexico allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any registered New Mexico voter may apply for an absentee ballot and vote by mail.

N.M. Stat. Ann. § 1-6-3 (2014).

In New Mexico, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person, online, or by mail no later than 14 days before the election.

N. M. Stat. Ann. §1-6-1 (2018).

New Mexico does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Absentee ballots contain a form that must be signed by the voter and requires them to print their name, address, and year of birth.

N.M. Stat. Ann. §§ 1-1-24, 1-12-7.1, 1-12-10, 1-12-4.1 (2021).

Absentee ballots must be received by 7:00 pm on election day. New Mexico does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

N.M. Stat. Ann. § 1-6-10(B) (2021).

New Mexico allows for ballots to be dropped off at ballot drop boxes.

Ballot drop boxes must be a "secured container" and monitored by video surveillance cameras. There is no limit on the amount of ballot drop boxes in a county, but their locations must be posted at least 90 days before a general election and at least 42 days before a special election.

All secured containers shall be monitored by video surveillance cameras and the video recorded by that system shall be retained by the county clerk as a record related to voting. Electioneering is prohibited within one hundred feet of the secured container.

At least once a day, the county clerk or a full-time deputy county clerk shall collect the ballots from the secured containers, register the date and time stamp on each official mailing envelope and identify the location of the secured container in the ballot register.

N. M. Stat. §1978, § 1-6-9 (2021).

New Mexico provides in-person early voting to all eligible voters before election day. The early voting period begins the third Saturday before the election and ends on the Saturday before the election (14 days).

The amount of locations per county is determined by the number of registered voters in the county. The hours for early voting are set by the county clerks but early voting locations may not open before 7:00 am and must close by 9:00 pm. Each location must be open for at least 8 consecutive hours. Early voting locations may be closed on Sundays and Mondays.

N.M. Stat. Ann. § 1-6-5(G) (2021).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 7:00 pm (12 hours).

N.M. Stat. Ann. § 1-22-4 (2021).

New Mexico does not require registered voters to present identification documents at the polls. Before casting a ballot, voters must a written or verbal confirmation of name, address, and date of birth. Election officials must announce the name out loud and confirm the voter is on the registration list.

N.M. Stat. Ann. §§ 1-1-24, 1-12-7.1, 1-12-10, and 1-12-4.1 (2021).

New Mexico prevents electioneering within 100 feet of the polling place. Electioneering includes the display or distribution of signs or campaign literature, campaign buttons, t-shirts, hats, pins, or other such items and includes the verbal or electronic solicitation of votes for a candidate or question. Whoever commits electioneering too close to the polling place is guilty of a petty misdemeanor.

N.M. Stat. Ann. § 1-20-16 (1978).

New York

New York has a State Board of Elections that oversees elections.

The State Board of Elections has four commissioners, all appointed by the governor. For the first two seats, the chairs of the two major political parties each submit a list of two or more recommended candidates, from which the governor appoints one commissioner. For the remaining two seats, each major political party's state legislative leadership submits a recommended candidate, which the governor appoints as commissioner; but if the governor declines or rejects appointing that candidate to a vacancy, the legislative leadership can either appoint the recommended candidate directly or recommend another person to the governor instead.

In addition to the State Board of Elections, there is also a 2-member or 4-member board of election in each county, except for the five counties covered by the single, 10-member New York City Board of Elections.

N.Y. Elec. Law § 3-200 through § 3-226.

No, New York does not currently have an automatic voter registration system in place, but an automatic voter registration system is scheduled to be implemented starting in 2023.

Lawmakers enacted the New York Automatic Voter Registration Act of 2020 into law, which requires designated state agencies to establish an automatic voter registration system. The new law designates the DMV and other state agencies that interact directly with New York residents to work with the State Board of Elections to integrate agency and voter registration applications. This new, single application will serve as both an application for services and a voter registration application. The DMV will come online in 2023, followed by DOH, DOL, and the Office of Temporary and Disability Assistance in 2024. The State University of New York will come online in 2025.

N.Y. Elec. Law § 5-308 (2021).

New York does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked no later than 25 days before the election and received by a board of elections no later than 20 days before the election to be eligible to vote in the election. A registration done in person must be completed at least 25 days prior to the election.

N.Y. Elec. Law § 5-210 (Consol. 2020).

Effective May 4, 2021, NY SB 830 (2021), a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of prison time.

N.Y. Elec. Law § 5-106 (Consol. 2020); Executive Order No. 181 (2018).

No, New York does not conduct all-mail elections.

N.Y. Elec. Law § 8-400 (2021).

New York requires an excuse for not voting on election day in order to request an absentee ballot.

In order to vote absentee in New York, you must meet one of the following criteria:

  1. Absent from your county or, if a resident of New York City absent from the five boroughs, on Election Day.
  2. Unable to appear at the polls due to temporary or permanent illness or disability (temporary illness includes being unable to appear due to risk of contracting or spreading a communicable disease like COVID-19).
  3. Unable to appear because you are the primary care giver of one or more individuals who are ill or physically disabled.
  4. A resident or patient of a Veterans Health Administration Hospital.
  5. Detained in jail awaiting Grand Jury action or confined in prison after conviction for an offense other than a felony.

N.Y. Elec. Law § 8-400 (Consol. 2021).

In New York, applicants for absentee ballots must apply online, postmark, email, or fax a completed application or letter request for the absentee ballot no later than 7 days before the election.

N.Y. Elec. Law § 8-400(2)(b)-(c) (2021).

New York does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Absentee voters subscribe to an oath on the envelope. The signature on the envelope is compared to the registration poll record to determine acceptance.

N.Y. Elec. Law §§ 8-410, 9-209 (Consol. 2021).

Absentee ballots must be postmarked by election day and received no later than 7 days after the election.

N.Y. Elec. Law § 8-412 (Consol. 2020).

New York does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

N.Y. Elec. Law § 8-412 (Consol. 2021).

New York provides in-person early voting to all eligible voters before election day. The early voting period begins 10 days before the election and ends on the second day before the election (9 days).

There will be at least one early voting location for every full increment of 50,000 registered voters in each county, but not more than seven are required. Counties with fewer than 50,000 registered voters shall have at least one early voting location. Counties and the city of New York may choose to establish more than the minimum required. Early voting sites will be located so that voters have adequate and equitable access.

Early voting locations are open for at least 8 hours between 7 a.m.-8 p.m. each weekday during the early voting period. At least one early voting site shall be open until 8 p.m. on at least two weekdays in each calendar week during the early voting period. On each Saturday, Sunday, and legal holiday during the early voting period, early voting locations are open for at least 5 hours between 9 a.m. and 6 p.m. Boards of elections may establish a greater number of hours for voting during the early voting period beyond what is required.

N.Y. Elec. Law § 8-600 (Consol. 2020).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 6:00 am to 9:00 pm (15 hours).

N.Y. Elec. Law § 8-100(2) (Consol. 2020).

New York does not require registered voters to present identification documents at the polls. Before casting a ballot, voters must sign the poll book and elections officials must compare the voter’s physical appearance with information on record.

N.Y. Elec. Law § 8-304 (Consol. 2020).

While the polls are open no person shall do any electioneering within the polling place, or in any public street, within a 100 foot radial measured from the entrances designated by the inspectors of election, to such polling place or within such distance in any place in a public manner; and no political banner, button, poster or placard shall be allowed in or upon the polling place or within such one hundred foot radial.

Furnishing money or entertainment to induce attendance at polls is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor. Including providing any meat, drink, tobacco, refreshment, or provision to or for any person voting.

N.Y. Elec. Law § 8-104 (Consol. 2020), § 17-140.

North Carolina

North Carolina has a State Board of Elections that oversees elections. The State Board consists of five registered voters whose terms of office began May 1, 2019, and continues for four years. The Governor appoints State Board members to four-year terms from a list of nominees chose by the State party chair of each of the two political parties having the highest number of registered affiliates as reflected by the latest registration statistics.

N.C.G.S. § 163-19

No, North Carolina does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

N.C. Gen. Stat. § 163-82.1 (2018).

North Carolina offers same day voter registration during the early voting period (which ends the Saturday before the election) but not election day. Voters must attest to their eligibility and provide proof of residence.

If a person becomes eligible to vote between the 25th day before an election and election day, the person may register in person on election day at the board of elections or by submitting an application to the chief judge in the person's precinct.

Otherwise, voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than 25 days before the election.

N.C. Gen. Stat. § 163-82.6 (2018).

In North Carolina, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their full sentence, including prison time, parole, probation, and has received a certificate of restoration of rights.. The certificate of rights restoration is issued by the agency having jurisdiction over the inmate upon completion of all terms of the sentence.

A state Superior Court injunction halted, at least temporarily, as of Sept. 20, 2020, a requirement that in order to be allowed to register to vote, a person convicted of a felony whose rights of citizenship have been restored must also pay all court fines and fees.

N.C. Gen. Stat. § 13-1 (2018); Commun. Success Initiative, et al. v. Moore, et al. (N.C. Sup. Ct. September 4, 2020).

No, North Carolina does not conduct all-mail elections.

North Carolina allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any registered voter may vote at any election by absentee ballot. A person wishing to vote absentee must request a ballot first.

N.C. Gen. Stat. § 163-226 (2019).

In North Carolina, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person, online, or by mail no later 5:00 pm on the Tuesday before election days (7 days).

N.C. Gen. Stat. § 163-230.1 (2020)

North Carolina does not require a copy of voter identification but does require the signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Marking of an absentee ballot must be witnessed by two people or one notary. The two witnesses must sign the ballot, provide address information, and certify that the voter is the registered voter that requested the absentee ballot. If witnessed by a notary public, the ballot can be notarized.

N.C. Gen. Stat. § 163-231 (2018).

Absentee ballots must be postmarked by election day and received no later than 5:00 pm 3 days after the election.

N.C. Gen. Stat. § 163-231 (2018).

North Carolina does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

North Carolina provides in-person early voting to all eligible voters before election day. The early voting period begins on the third Thursday before the election and ends at 3:00 pm on the Saturday before the election (17 days).

N.C. Gen. Stat. § 163-227.2 (2018).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 6:30 am to 7:30 pm (13 hours).

N.C. Gen. Stat. § 163-166.01 (2018).

Currently, on account of a court order, North Carolina does not require registered voters to present identification documents at the polls. Before casting a ballot, voters must state their name and address and sign the poll book.

N.C. Gen. Stat. § 163-166.16 (2020).

A buffer zone where electioneering is prohibited extends 25 feet to 50 feet from the front door of the voting place. Within the buffer zone, no person or group may hinder access, harass, distribute campaign literature, place political advertising, solicit votes, or otherwise engage in election-related activity.

N.C. Gen. Stat. § 163-166.4 (2019).

North Dakota

Secretary of state of North Dakota supervises election procedures.

NDCC § 16.1-01

No, North Dakota does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

N.D. Cent. Code § 16.1-01-04.1 (2008)

North Dakota does not require voter registration. Eligible voters simply need to bring valid proof of ID and residency to the polls in order to vote.

N.D. Cent. Code § 16.1-01 (2003).

In North Dakota, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of prison time.

N.D. Cent. Code § 12.1-33-01 (2003).

No, North Dakota does not conduct all-mail elections.

Executive Order 2020-13

North Dakota allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any qualified elector of this state may vote an absent voter's ballot at any general, special, or primary state election, any county election, or any city or school district election.

N.D. Cent. Code § 16.1-07 (2011)

In North Dakota, applications for absentee ballots have no specific deadline on when they must be received, but it is recommended to be requested at least 7 days in advance.

A completed application must be submitted to the appropriate election official in a timely manner so as to allow the applicant to receive, complete, and mail the absent voter's ballot before the day of the election.

N.D. Cent. Code § 16.1-07 (2011).

North Dakota does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

The election clerks and board members of the relevant polling place first shall compare the signature on the application for an absent voter's ballot with the signature on the voter's affidavit to ensure the signatures correspond.

N.D. Cent. Code § 16.1-07-12 (2003).

Absentee ballots must be postmarked by the day before election day and received no later than the end of the election's official canvas. If the absentee ballot is postmarked on election day it must be received by the close of polls on election day.

N.D. Cent. Code § 16.1-07-09 (2011).

North Dakota does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

Governor of North Dakota, Executive Order 2020-13 (2020).

North Dakota provides in-person early voting to all eligible voters before election day. The early voting period begins at least 15 days before the election and ends on the day before the election (14 days). The time period may vary by county.

The county auditor shall designate the business days and times during which the early voting election precinct will be open and publish notice of the early voting center locations, dates, and times in the official county newspaper once each week for three consecutive weeks immediately before the day of the election.

N.D. Cent. Code §16.1-07-15 (2011).

On election day, polls are must be open for voting no earlier than 7:00 am and no later than 9:00 am (as designated for any precinct by resolution of the governing body of the city or county in which the precinct is located) and close no earlier than 7:00 pm and no later than 9:00 pm (12 hours).

All electors standing in line to vote at the time the polls are set to close must be allowed to vote, but electors arriving after closing time may not be allowed to vote.

N.D. Cent. Code § 16.1-01-03 (2011).

North Dakota requires all voters to provide personal identification before voting at the polls.

Identification must provide:

  • Legal name
  • Current residential street address in North Dakota
  • Date of birth

A valid form of identification is:

  • Driver’s license
  • ID card issued by the North Dakota department of transportation
  • ID issued by a tribal government to a tribal member residing in the state

If an individual’s valid form of ID does not include the required information or the information is not current, the identification must be supplemented by one of the following that provides the missing or outdated information:

  • Current utility bill
  • Current bank statement
  • Check issued by a federal, state, or local government
  • Paycheck
  • Document issued by a federal, state, or local government
  • A printed document containing legal name, residential street address, and date of birth issued by an institution of higher education for an enrolled student residing in the state and containing the institution's letterhead or seal, along with a student photo identification card issued by the institution and containing the student's photograph and legal name (added by HB 1447 (2021), effective Aug. 1, 2021)

If an individual is not able to show a valid form of identification but asserts qualifications as an elector in the precinct in which the individual desires to vote, the individual may mark a ballot that must be securely set aside in a sealed envelope designed by the secretary of state. After the ballot is set aside, the individual may show a valid form of identification to either a polling place election board member if the individual returns to the polling place before the polls close, or to an employee of the office of the election official responsible for the administration of the election before the meeting of the canvassing board occurring on the 6th day after the election. Each ballot set aside under this process must be presented to the members of the canvassing board for proper inclusion or exclusion from the tally.

North Dakota's voter ID requirements are considered "strict" because voters without acceptable identification must vote on a provisional ballot and also take additional steps after election day for it to be counted.

N.D. Cent. Code § 16.1-01 (2002).

No individual may buy, sell, give, or provide any political badge, button, or any insignia within a polling place or within 100 feet from the entrance to the room containing the polling place while it is open for voting.

An individual may not ask, solicit, or in any manner try to induce or persuade, any voter within a polling place or within 100 feet from the entrance to the room containing a polling place while it is open for voting to vote or refrain from voting for any candidate or the candidates or ticket of any political party or organization, or any measure submitted to the people.

N.D. Cent. Code § 16.1-10 (2020).

Ohio

The secretary of state is the chief election officer of the state, with such powers and duties relating to the registration of voters and the conduct of elections. The secretary of state shall perform these duties, in addition to other duties imposed upon him by law, without additional compensation.

OH Elec. Law Section 3501.04

No, Ohio does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Ohio does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than 30 days before the election (extended to the next business day if this falls on a Sunday).

Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 3503.19 (2013).

In Ohio, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of prison time.

Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 3503.21 (2016).

No, Ohio does not conduct all-mail elections.

Ohio allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any qualified elector may vote by absent voter's ballots at an election.

Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 3509.02 (2012).

In Ohio, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person, online, or by mail no later than noon 3 days before election day.

Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 3509.03 (2016).

Ohio does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Ballot return envelopes are printed with an identification statement requiring both the voter’s signature under penalty of election falsification and the voter’s driver’s license number or the last four digits of the voter’s social security number.

Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 3509.03 (2013).

Absentee ballots must be postmarked by the day before election day and received no later than 10 days after the election. If the absentee ballot is postmarked on election day it must be received by the close of polls on election day.

Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 3509.05 (2013).

Ohio does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

Ohio provides "in-person absentee" voting before election day at the main office of the board of elections. Ohio allows no-excuse absentee voting, but an elector wishing to vote early in person must apply for and receive an absentee ballot prior to doing so.

The in-person absentee period begins no more than 28 days before the election and ends at 2:00 pm the Monday before the election.

Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 3509.01 (2013).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 6:30 am to 7:30 pm (13 hours).

Unless there are voters waiting in line to cast their ballots, in which case the polls shall be kept open until such waiting voters have voted.

Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 3501.32 (2013).

Ohio requires all voters to provide personal identification before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • a current and valid photo identification, defined as a document that shows the individual’s name and current address, includes a photograph, includes an expiration date that has not passed, and was issued by the U.S. government or the state of Ohio;
  • a military identification;
  • a copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, government check, paycheck, or other government document that shows the voter's name and current address.

A voter who has but declines to provide identification may cast a provisional ballot upon providing a Social Security number or the last four digits of a Social Security number. A voter who has neither identification nor a Social Security number may execute an affidavit to that effect and vote a provisional ballot. A voter who declines to sign the affidavit may still vote a provisional ballot.

Voters who cast a provisional ballot because they did not provide acceptable proof of identity must appear in person at the board of elections to provide such proof within the 10 days immediately following the election.

Ohio's voter ID requirements are considered "strict" because voters without acceptable identification must vote on a provisional ballot and also take additional steps after election day for it to be counted.

Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 3503.19.

Two or more small flags of the United States approximately 15 inches in length along the top, which shall be placed at a distance of 100 feet from the polling place on the thoroughfares or walkways leading to the polling place, to mark the distance within which persons other than election officials, observers, police officers, and electors waiting to mark, marking, or casting their ballots shall not loiter, congregate, or engage in any kind of election campaigning. Where small flags cannot reasonably be placed one hundred feet from the polling place, the presiding election judge shall place the flags as near to one hundred feet from the entrance to the polling place as is physically possible. Police officers and all election officials shall see that this prohibition against loitering and congregating is enforced.

During an election and the counting of the ballots, no person shall do any of the following:

  • loiter, congregate, or engage in any kind of election campaigning within the area between the polling place and the small flags of the United States placed on the thoroughfares and walkways leading to the polling place, and if the line of electors waiting to vote extends beyond those small flags, within ten feet of any elector in that line
  • solicit or in any manner attempt to influence any elector in casting the elector’s vote.

Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 3501.35 (2013); Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 3501.90 (2006).

Oklahoma

In Oklahoma the Secretary of the Board of Elections is in charge of election oversight. The members are appointed to the position by the Oklahoma State Senate.

Okla. Stat. tit. 26, § 2-101.

No, Oklahoma does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Okla. Stat. tit. 26, § 4-101 (2021).

Oklahoma does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than 25 days before the election.

Okla. Stat. tit. 26, § 4-103.1 (2016); see also Okla. Stat. tit. 26, § 4-110.1 (2019).

In Oklahoma, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their full sentence, including prison time, parole, and probation.

Okla. Stat. tit. 26, § 4-120.4 (2002).

No, Oklahoma does not conduct all-mail elections.

Okla. Stat. tit. 26, § 14-101, et seq. (2020).

Oklahoma allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any registered Oklahoma voter may apply for an absentee ballot and vote by mail.

Okla. Stat. tit. 26, § 14-105 (2013).

In Oklahoma, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person, online, or by mail no later than 7 days before the election.

Okla. Stat. tit. 26, § 14-103 (2020).

Oklahoma does not require a copy of voter identification but does require the signature of a notary on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

The absentee ballot envelope must be signed and be notarized. Notary publics may not notarize more than 20 absentee ballots without the written approval of the election board.

Okla. Stat. tit. 26, § 14-107 (2019).

Absentee ballots must be received by 7:00 pm on election day. Oklahoma does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Okla. Stat. tit. 26, § 14-104 (2017).

Oklahoma does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

Okla. Stat. tit. 26, § 1-101, et seq.

Oklahoma provides "in-person absentee" voting before election day at locations designated by the county election board. Oklahoma allows no-excuse absentee voting, but an elector wishing to vote early in person must apply for and receive an absentee ballot prior to doing so.

Voters may cast an absentee ballot in person at the county election board office from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. on Thursday and Friday before all elections. For state and federal elections only, in-person absentee voting also is available from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. on Saturday. In-person absentee voters must fill out and sign an application form when they arrive to vote.

The in-person absentee period begins the Thursday before the election and ends at 2:00 pm the Saturday before the election (3 days).

Okla. Stat. tit. 26, § 14-115.4 (2017).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 7:00 pm (12 hours).

Okla. Stat. tit. 26, § 7-104 (2017).

Oklahoma requires voters to provide personal identification with a photo before voting at the polls.

"Proof of identity" means a document that satisfies the following:

  • shows a name that substantially confirms to the name in the precinct registry,
  • shows a photograph,
  • includes an expiration date after the election,
  • was issued by the USA, state of Oklahoma, or a federally recognized Indian tribe.

A voter registration card may be used without meeting all of the requirements if it was issued by the county board of elections.

Allows people to cast a provisional ballot if they are unable to produce proof of identity. A provisional ballot cast by a voter who declines or is unable to produce proof of identity shall only be considered verified and approved for counting if the voter's name, residence address, date of birth, and driver's license number or last four digits of Social Security number as provided on the affidavit match what is in the registration database.

Oklahoma's voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

Okla. Stat. tit. 26, § 7-114 (2020).

No person shall be allowed to electioneer within 300 feet of any ballot box while an election is in progress, nor shall any person or persons, except election officials and other persons authorized by law, be allowed within 50 feet of any ballot box while an election is in progress. No printed material other than that provided by the election board shall be publicly placed or exposed within 300 feet of any ballot box, while an election is in progress.

Okla. Stat. tit. 26, § 7-108 (1980).

Oregon

The Oregon Secretary of State is an elected position and the states primary election officer for statewide ballots and elections.

ORS § 254.074 ORS § 254.085

Yes, Oregon was the first state to implemented an automatic voter registration system in 2016 via legislation. Eligible voters in Oregon are automatically registered to vote in the state when they complete a license application with the Driver and Motor Vehicle Services (DMV). Individuals will be notified of the automatic voter registration and may choose to opt-out of the voter registration.

Or. Rev. Stat. § 247.017 (2019).

Oregon does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be received no later than 21 days before the election.

Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 246.150, 247.019 (2019).

In Oregon, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of prison time.

Or. Rev. Stat. § 254.470 (2019).

Yes, Oregon conducts all-mail elections.

Every voter receives a mail-in ballot by default. Voters may submit completed ballots by mail or deposit them at designated drop-boxes and drop sites. In-person voting booths are also available.

Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 254.465, 254.470 (2019).

Oregon conducts all-mail elections, which means voters do not need to request a ballot, and instead automatically receive one. Therefore, the state allows no-excuse absentee voting.

Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 254.465, 254.470 (2019).

Oregon conducts all-mail elections, which means voters do not need to request a ballot, and instead automatically receive one. If an individual needs to change where the ballot is mailed, the individual must submit an address change at least 5 days before election day.

Or. Rev. Stat. § 254.465 (2019).

Oregon does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

If a voter returns a ballot and did not sign the return envelope, or if the signature of the elector on the envelope did not match the signature in the voter registration record, the county clerk shall mail the elector a notice. In order for the vote of the elector to be counted, the elector must provide evidence sufficient to disprove the challenge not later than the 14th calendar day after the date of the election.

Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 254.431, 254.470 (2019).

Absentee ballots must be received by 8:00 pm on election day. Oregon does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Or. Rev. Stat. §253.070 (2019).

Oregon conducts all-mail elections with no early in-person voting options, which means voters will automatically receive a ballot to return by mail.

However, Oregon also requires each county to provide ballot drop boxes.

Each box must be locked, tamper-proof, staffed, and clearly marked with official signage. Oregon requires one drop-site at the county elections office, at least two drop-sites per county, at least one drop-site for every 30,000 active registered voters, and a drop-site within at least four miles of each public university or community college.

Or. Rev. Stat. § 254.470 (2019).

Oregon conducts all-mail elections with early in-person voting options, which means voters will automatically receive a ballot to return by mail or drop off in-person at voting centers.

Ballot drop-sites in Oregon must open the Friday before an election, but may open as soon as ballots are available (18 days before). Early voting ends at 8:00 p.m. on the day of the election. Oregon drop-sites operate under normal business hours.

Or. Rev. Stat. § 254.470 (2019).

Oregon is an all-mail voting state. Ballot drop-sites in Oregon open on the Friday before an election but may open as soon as ballots are available (18 days before). A voter is able to vote on election day at a local municipal clerk's office. All ballots must be received by 8 p.m.

Or. Rev. Stat. § 254.470 (2019).

Oregon does not require registered voters to present identification documents at the polls. Oregon holds elections by mail, so this law impacts only voters who choose to vote in person on election day. Ballots in Oregon, including ballots cast in person, must be accompanied by a return envelope signed by the voter.

Or. Rev. Stat. § 254.470 (2019).

A person may not do any electioneering, including circulating any cards or handbills, or soliciting of signatures to any petition, within any building in which any elections office designated for the deposit of ballots or within 100 feet measured radially from any entrance to the building. A person may not do any electioneering by public address system located more than 100 feet from an entrance to the building if the person is capable of being understood within 100 feet of the building.

The electioneering need not relate to the election being conducted. This subsection applies during the period beginning on the date that ballots are mailed to electors and ending on election day at 8 p.m. or when all persons waiting in line at the building who began the act of voting by 8 p.m. have finished voting.

Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 260.695, 254.470 (2019).

Pennsylvania

Under the leadership of the Secretary of the Commonwealth, the Pennsylvania Department of State promotes the integrity of the electoral process.

25 P.S. § 2621

No, Pennsylvania does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Pennsylvania does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be received no later than 15 days before the election.

25 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 3071 (2020).

In Pennsylvania, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of prison time.

VotesPA, Information for people who have been convicted of a felony (2021).

No, Pennsylvania does not conduct all-mail elections.

25 Pa. Stat. and Cons. Stat. Ann. § 3150.11 (2020).

Pennsylvania allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any qualified voter may apply for a mail-in ballot. You may simply request this ballot without a reason.

25 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 3150.11 (2020).

In Pennsylvania, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person, online, or by mail no later than 5:00 pm on the first Tuesday before the election (7 days).

25 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 3150.12a (2020).

Pennsylvania does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Voters must fill out, date, and sign the declaration printed on the absentee ballot envelope.

25 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 3146.6 (2020).

Absentee ballots must be received by 8:00 pm on election day. Pennsylvania does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

25 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 3146.8 (2020).

Under guidance issued by the Secretary of State, Pennsylvania allows counties to provide ballot drop boxes ("secure receptacle that permits voters to return their own voted ballots").

County boards of elections may establish sites where voters may return their own voted ballot. The site should provide voters access to a ballot return receptacle that is secure. All return sites should be accessible at least during regular business hours beginning not less than 30 days before the day of the election, and on the day of the election.

Each ballot return site should have a secure receptacle that permits voters to return their own voted ballot.

The county boards of election should determine receptacle size based on the use and needs of the location. The receptacle should be securely fastened to a stationary surface, to an immovable object, or placed behind a counter.

25 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 3150.16 (2020); Pennsyvlania Department of State, Absentee and Mail-in Ballot Return Guidance (Aug. 19, 2020) (page 5, section 2.2).

Pennsylvania provides "in-person absentee" voting before election day at the local board of elections. Pennsylvania allows no-excuse absentee voting, but an elector wishing to vote early in person must apply for and receive an absentee ballot prior to doing so (which can be done at the early voting location).

The in-person absentee period begins up to 50 days before the election and ends at 5:00 pm the first Tuesday before the election.

25 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 3146.2a (2020).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 8:00 pm (13 hours).

25 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 3045 (2020).

Pennsylvania does not require registered voters to present identification documents at the polls. Before casting a ballot, voters must sign an affidavit of eligibility and provide an address.

However, when voting at a polling place for the first time, you must show proof of identification.

Approved forms of photo identification include:

  • Pennsylvania driver’s license or PennDOT ID card
  • ID issued by any Commonwealth agency
  • ID issued by the U.S. Government
  • U.S. passport
  • U.S. Armed Forces ID
  • Student ID
  • Employee ID

If the first-time voter does not have a photo ID, a non-photo identification listed below that includes your name and address may be used.:

  • Confirmation issued by the County Voter Registration Office
  • Non-photo ID issued by the Commonwealth
  • Non-photo ID issued by the U.S. Government
  • Firearm permit
  • Current utility bill
  • Current bank statement
  • Current paycheck
  • Government check

Pennsylvania Department of State, Penn. Elect. Code §1.3.1210, Voter ID for First Time Voters.

All persons, except election officers, clerks, machine inspectors, overseers, watchers, persons in the course of voting, persons lawfully giving assistance to voters, and peace and police officers, when permitted by the provisions of this act, must remain at least 10 feet distant from the polling place during the progress of the voting.

25 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 3060 (2020).

Rhode Island

Rhode Island has an elected Secretary of State, as well as a State Board of Elections with members appointed by the Governor.

Election oversight is controlled in part by both the Secretary of State and the State Board of Elections.

RI Gen L § 17-7-5, RI Gen L § 17-6-1.

Yes, Rhode Island implemented an automatic voter registration system in 2018 via legislation. Eligible voters in Rhode Island are automatically registered to vote in the state when they complete an application or renewal for a diver's license or personal identification document with the Division of Motor Vehicles (DMV). DMV customers may choose to opt-out of the automatic registration during the transaction with the DMV.

17 R.I. Gen. Laws § 17-9.1-7 (2017).

Generally, Rhode Island does not offer same day or election day voter registration for most elections. However, Rhode Island allows election day registration at the voter's local board of canvassers but only to vote for U.S. President and Vice President.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than 30 days before the election.

17 R.I. Gen. Laws § 17-1-3 (2011); see also 17 R.I. Gen. Laws § 17-9.1-3 (1996).

In Rhode Island, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of prison time.

17 R.I. Gen. Laws § 17-9.2-3 (2006).

No, Rhode Island does not conduct all-mail elections.

Rhode Island allows no-excuse absentee voting.

Mail ballots are available to voters who need them because of illness, or mental or physical disability, blindness, or serious impairment of mobility; because they are confined in any hospital, convalescent home, nursing home, rest home, or similar institution, public or private, within the State of Rhode Island; because they will be temporarily absent from the state because of employment or service intimately connected with military operations or who is a spouse or legal dependent residing with that person, or a United States citizen that will be outside of the United States; or because the voter may not be able to vote at his or her polling place in his or her city or town on the day of the election.

17 R.I. Gen. Laws § 17-20-2 (2011).

In Rhode Island, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person or by mail no later than 4:00 p.m. 21 days before the election.

R.I. Gen. Laws § 17-20-2.1 (2011).

Rhode Island does not require a copy of voter identification but does require the signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

For mail ballots to be valid the signature on all certifying envelopes containing a voted ballot must be made before a notary public, or other person authorized by law to administer oaths where signed, or where the elector voted, or before 2 witnesses who set forth their addresses on the form. Military and overseas voters are excepted from the notary or witness requirements.

17 R.I. Gen. Laws § 17-20-2.1 (2021).

Absentee ballots must be received by 8:00 pm on election day. Rhode Island does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

17 R.I. Gen. Laws § 17-20-16 (2019).

Rhode Island does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

Temporary regulations allowed the use of drop boxes for the Sept. 8 and Nov. 3, 2020, election only.

410 -RICR-20-00-24 (2020).

Rhode Island provides "in-person absentee" voting before election day at the local boards of canvassers. The in-person absentee period begins 20 days before the election and ends the day before the election (19 days).

17 R.I. Gen. Laws § 17-20-2.2 (2019).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 8:00 pm (13 hours).

17 R.I. Gen. Laws § 17-18-10 (2019); see also 17 R.I. Gen. Laws § 17-18-11 (2013).

Rhode Island requires voters to provide personal identification with a photo before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • Rhode Island driver's license
  • Rhode Island voter identification card
  • U.S. passport
  • Identification card issued by a U.S. educational institution
  • U.S. military identification card
  • Identification card issued by the U.S. government or state of Rhode Island
  • Government-issued medical card

If the person claiming to be a registered and eligible voter is unable to provide proof of identity as required, the person shall be allowed to vote a provisional ballot. The local board shall determine the validity of the provisional ballot.

The local board shall examine each provisional ballot application to determine if the signature matches the signature on the voter's registration. If the signatures match, the provisional ballot shall count. If the signatures do not match, the ballot shall not count and shall be rejected as illegal.

Rhode Island 's voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

17 R.I. Gen. Laws § 17-19-24.2 (2020).

No poster, paper, circular, or other document designed or tending to aid, injure, or defeat any candidate for public office or any political party on any question submitted to the voters shall be distributed or displayed within the voting place or within 50 feet of the entrance or entrances to the building in which voting is conducted at any primary or election. Neither shall any election official display on his or her person within the voting place any political party button, badge, or other device tending to aid, injure, or defeat the candidacy of any person for public office or any question submitted to the voters or to intimidate or influence the voters.

17 R.I. Gen. Laws § 17-19-49 (1962).

South Carolina

Elections are overseen by the State Election Commission, which is made up of five members, at least one of whom shall be a member of the majority political party and at least one member of whom shall be a member of the largest minority political party represented in the General Assembly, are appointed by the Governor for four year terms. The State Election Commission holds monthly meetings which the public are invited to attend.

SC Code § 7-3-10

No, South Carolina does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Oklahoma does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than 30 days before the election (deadline is extended to the next business day if this falls on a Sunday).

S.C. Code Ann. § 7-5-220 (2013).

In South Carolina, a person convicted of a felony or an offense against the election laws loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their full sentence, including prison time, parole, and probation or granted a pardon.

S.C. Code Ann. § 7-5-120 (2013).

No, South Carolina does not conduct all-mail voting.

South Carolina requires an excuse for not voting on election day in order to request an absentee ballot.

Qualified electors in any of the following categories must be permitted to vote by absentee ballot in all elections when they are absent from their county of residence on election day during the hours the polls are open, to an extent that it prevents them from voting in person:

  • students, their spouses, and dependents residing with them;

  • persons serving with the American Red Cross or with the United Service Organizations (USO) who are attached to and serving with the Armed Forces of the United States, their spouses, and dependents residing with them;

  • governmental employees, their spouses, and dependents residing with them;

  • persons on vacation (who by virtue of vacation plans will be absent from their county of residence on election day); or

  • overseas citizens.

Qualified electors in any of the following categories must be permitted to vote by absentee ballot in all elections, whether or not they are absent from their county of residence on election day:

  • physically disabled persons;

  • persons whose employment obligations require that they be at their place of employment during the hours that the polls are open and present written certification of that obligation to the county board of voter registration and elections;

  • certified poll watchers, poll managers, county board of voter registration and elections members and staff, county and state election commission members and staff working on election day;

  • persons attending sick or physically disabled persons;

  • persons admitted to hospitals as emergency patients on the day of an election or within a four-day period before the election;

  • persons with a death or funeral in the family within a three-day period before the election;

  • persons who will be serving as jurors in a state or federal court on election day;

  • persons sixty-five years of age or older;

  • persons confined to a jail or pretrial facility pending disposition of arrest or trial; or

  • members of the Armed Forces and Merchant Marines of the United States, their spouses, and dependents residing with them.

S.C. Code Ann. § 7-15-320 (2014).

In South Carolina, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person or by mail no later than 5:00 pm 4 days before the election.

S.C. Code Ann. § 7-15-330 (2014).

South Carolina does not require a copy of voter identification but does require the signature of a witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

State law requires an oath to be imprinted on the return-addressed envelope, furnished each absentee ballot applicant, which must be signed by the absentee ballot applicant and witnessed. The address of the witness shall appear on the oath. Military and overseas voters are excepted from the witness requirements.

S.C. Code Ann. § 7-15-380 (2013).

Absentee ballots must be received by the time the polls close on election day. South Carolina does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

S.C. Code Ann. § 7-15-230 (2014).

South Carolina does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

South Carolina does not offer in-person voting before election day.

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 7:00 pm (12 hours).

S.C. Code Ann. § 7-13-60 (2014).

South Carolina requires voters to provide personal identification with a photo before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • South Carolina driver's license or other form of identification containing a photograph issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles;
  • passport;
  • military identification containing a photograph issued by the federal government;
  • South Carolina voter registration card containing a photograph of the voter.

Voters who have a reasonable impediment to obtaining photo ID may show a non-photo voter registration card in lieu of photo ID, sign an affidavit attesting to the impediment, and cast a provisional ballot that will be counted unless the county election commission has reason to believe your affidavit is false.

If the voter does not have a photo ID or a reasonable impediment to obtaining one or simply forgot to bring it with you to the polls, they may still vote a provisional ballot. However, for the vote to be counted, the voter must provide one of the required photo IDs to the county election commission prior to certification of the election (usually Thursday or Friday after the election).

South Carolina's voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

S.C. Code Ann. § 7-13-710 (2013).

It is unlawful on an election day within 200 feet of any entrance used by the voters to enter the polling place for a person to distribute any type of campaign literature or place any political posters. The poll manager shall use every reasonable means to keep the area within 200 feet of any such entrance clear of political literature and displays, and the county and municipal law enforcement officers, upon request of a poll manager, shall remove or cause to be removed any material within 200 feet of any such entrance distributed or displayed in violation of this section. A candidate may wear within two hundred feet of the polling place a label no larger than four and one-fourth inches by four and one-fourth inches that contains the candidate's name and the office he is seeking. If the candidate enters the polling place, he may not display any of this identification including, but not limited to, campaign stickers, or buttons.

S.C. Code Ann. § 7-25-180 (2014).

South Dakota

There is a State Board of Elections composed of seven members, one of whom is the secretary of state who is chairman.

S.D. Cod. Laws § 12-1-5

No, South Dakota does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

South Dakota does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be received no later than 15 days before the election.

South Dakota does not offer an online registration form, you must fill out a paper voter registration application.

S.D. Codified Laws § 12-4-5 (2019).

In South Dakota, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their prison time, parole, and restitution (including all fines and fees).

S.D. Codified Laws § 12-4-18 (2012).

No, South Dakota does not conduct all-mail elections.

South Dakota allows no-excuse absentee voting. A registered voter who is not otherwise disqualified by law from voting in the election may vote by absentee ballot.

S.D. Codified Laws § 12-19-1 (2003).

In South Dakota, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person, online, or by mail no later than 1 day before the election (but 7 days is recommended).

S.D. Codified Laws § 12-19-2.1 (2017).

South Dakota requires either a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

An application for an absentee ballot must be accompanied by either an oath verifying the information, administered by a notary public or authorized officer or a copy of the voter’s identification. There is a statement on the absentee ballot return envelope that must be signed by the voter.

S.D. Cod. Laws § 12-19-10 (2011).

Absentee ballots must be received by the time the polls close on election day. South Dakota does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

S.D. Codified Laws § 12-19-12 (2010).

South Dakota does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

South Dakota provides "in-person absentee" voting before election day at the office of the person in charge of elections. South Dakota allows no-excuse absentee voting, but an elector wishing to vote early in person must request an absentee ballot prior to doing so.

The in-person absentee period begins 45 days before the election and ends at 5:00 pm the day before the election.

S.D. Codified Laws §§ 12-2-3 12-19-1.2 (2010).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 7:00 pm (12 hours).

S.D. Codified Laws § 12-2-3 (2000).

South Dakota requires voters to provide personal identification with a photo before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • A South Dakota driver's license or nondriver identification card;
  • A passport or an identification card, including a picture, issued by an agency of the United States government;
  • A tribal identification card, including a picture; or
  • A current student identification card, including a picture, issued by a high school or an accredited institution of higher education, including a university, college, or technical school, located within the State of South Dakota.

If a voter is not able to present a form of personal identification as required, the voter may complete an affidavit in lieu of the personal identification. The affidavit shall require the voter to provide his or her name and address. The voter shall sign the affidavit under penalty of perjury.

South Dakota's voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

S.D. Codified Laws § 12-18-6.1 (2019).

No person may, in any polling place or within or on any building in which a polling place is located or within 100 feet from any entrance leading into a polling place, maintain a campaign office or public address system, or use any communication or photographic device in a manner which repeatedly distracts, interrupts, or intimidates any voter or election worker, or display campaign posters, signs, or other campaign materials or by any like means solicit any votes for or against any person or political party or position on a question submitted or which may be submitted.

S.D. Codified Laws § 12-18-3 (2014).

Tennessee

The Tennessee Secretary of State is a statewide appointed position by the State Legislature.

Tenn. Code Ann. § 8-3-104

No, Tennessee does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Tennessee does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than 30 days before the election (deadline is extended to the next business day if this falls on a Sunday).

Tenn. Code Ann. § 2-2-109 (2020).

In Tennessee, a person convicted of a felony (that is an “infamous crime”) loses voting rights and cannot regain the right to vote unless the individual applies to the Board of Probation and Parole and is granted proof of restoration.

A person convicted of an “infamous crime” (voter fraud, treason, any degree of murder or rape, felonious sexual offenses against minors, bribery, and other public official misconduct) loses voting rights and cannot regain the right to vote unless restored by the governor.

Individuals convicted of felonies before May 18, 1981, are subject to different restoration rules depending on the date of convocation and the specific crime.

Tenn. Const. art. 1, § 5.

No, Tennessee does not conduct all-mail elections.

Tennessee requires an excuse for not voting on election day in order to request an absentee ballot.

In order to vote absentee in Tennessee, you must meet one of the following criteria:

  • you will be outside the county of registration during the early voting period and all day on Election Day;

  • you or your spouse are enrolled as a full-time student in an accredited college or university but outside the county of registration;

  • you will be unable to vote in person due to service as a juror for a federal or state court;

  • you are 60 years of age or older;

  • you have a physical disability and an inaccessible polling place;

  • you are hospitalized, ill, or physically disabled and because of such condition, cannot vote in person;

  • you are the caretaker of a person who is hospitalized, ill, or disabled;

  • you are a candidate for office in the election;

  • you serve as an Election Day official or as a member or employee of Election Day commission;

  • you will be observing a religious holiday that prevents you from voting in person during the early voting period and on Election Day;

  • you or your spouse possess a valid commercial drivers license (CDL) or Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) and you certify that you will be working outside the state or county of registration during the early voting period and all day on Election Day-;

  • you are a member of the military or an overseas citizen;

  • a licensed physician has filed a statement with the county election commission stating that, in the physician's judgment, you are medically unable to vote in person. The statement must be filed not less than five (5) days before Election Day and signed under the penalty of perjury;

  • you reside in a licensed facility providing relatively permanent domiciliary care, other than a penal institution, outside the voter's county of residence.

If you are one of the last two, you can apply to be a permanent absentee voter.

Tenn. Code Ann. § 2-6-201 (2020).

In Tennessee, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person or by mail no later than 7 days before the election. Online absentee ballot requests are not available.

Tenn. Code Ann. § 2-6-202 (2021).

Tennessee does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

The voter’s signature on the absentee ballot application and the absentee ballot envelope is compared with the signature in the registration record.

Tenn. Code Ann. §§ 2-6-202, 2-6-204 (2020).

Absentee ballots must be received by the time the polls close on election day. Tennessee does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Tenn. Code Ann. § 2-6-304 (2020).

Tennessee does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

Tennessee provides in-person early voting to all eligible voters before election day. The early voting period begins 20 days before the election and ends 5 days before the election (15 days).

County election commission offices may be designated by the county election commission as early voting sites. Early voting offices must be open a minimum of three consecutive hours on weekdays and Saturdays between 8 a.m.- 6 p.m. during the early voting period. On at least three days, offices must be open between 4:30-7 p.m., and on at least one Saturday from 8 a.m. - 4 p.m. in counties with a population of over 150,000.

Tenn. Code Ann. § 2-6-102 (2020).

On election day, the hours a polling place is open for voting varies by county but must open for a minimum of 10 hours continuously but no more than 13 hours.

All polling places in counties in the eastern time zone shall close at 8:00 p.m. prevailing time and polling places in counties in the central time zone shall close at 7:00 p.m. prevailing time. At least 15 days before election day, each county determines opening times for polls within their county.

Tenn. Code Ann. § 2-3-201 (2020).

Tennessee requires all voters to provide personal identification with a photo before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • Tennessee driver’s license
  • Photo ID issued by the federal or Tennessee state government
  • Photo ID issued by Tennessee Dept. of Safety
  • U.S. passport
  • U.S. military ID with photo
  • Tennessee handgun carry permit with photo

If a voter is unable to present the proper evidence of identification, then the voter will be entitled to vote by provisional ballot in the manner detailed in the bill. The provisional ballot will only be counted if the voter provides the proper evidence of identification to the administrator of elections or the administrator's designee by the close of business on the second business day after the election.

Tennessee's voter ID requirements are considered "strict" because voters without acceptable identification must vote on a provisional ballot and also take additional steps after election day for it to be counted.

Tenn. Code Ann. § 2-7-112 (2020).

The county election commission shall designate entrances to the building in which the election is to be held that are for the use of voters. The officer shall measure off 100 feet from the designated entrances and place boundary signs at that distance. Within the appropriate boundary and the building in which the polling place is located, the display of campaign posters, signs, or other campaign materials, distribution of campaign materials, and solicitation of votes for or against any person, political party, or position on a question are prohibited. No campaign posters, signs, or other campaign literature may be displayed on or in any building in which a polling place is located.

Tenn. Code Ann. § 2-7-111 (2020).

Texas

The Secretary of State is the chief election officer of the state.

Texas Election Code Sec. 31.001

No, Texas does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Texas does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked or submitted in person no later than 30 days before the election (deadline is extended to the next business day if this falls on a Sunday).

Texas does not offer an online registration form, you must fill out a paper voter registration application.

Tex. Elec. Code Ann. § 13.143 (West 2013).

In Texas, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their full sentence, including prison time, parole, and probation or granted a pardon.

Tex. Elec. Code § 11.002 (West 2013).

No, Texas does not conduct all-mail elections.

Texas requires an excuse for not voting on election day in order to request an absentee ballot.

In order to vote absentee in Texas, you must meet one of the following criteria:

  • you are 65 years or older;
  • you are disabled;
  • you will be out of the county on Election Day and during the period for early voting by personal appearance; or
  • you are confined in jail, but otherwise eligible, or certified for participation in the address confidentiality program.

Texas Elec. Code Ann. §§ 82.001 - .004 (2021).

In Texas, applications for absentee ballots must be received online or by mail no later than 11 days before the election. In person applications must be received 22 days before election day.

Tex. Elec. Code Ann. § 84.007-84.008 (2020).

Texas does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Absentee ballot envelopes have a certificate that must be signed by the voter. The signature on the envelope is compared to the registration poll record to determine acceptance, or with any 2 or more signatures the voter has made within the preceding 6 years.

Tex. Elec. Code Ann. § 86.013, 87.027 (West 2013).

Absentee ballots must be postmarked by election day and received no later than 5:00 pm the day after the election (1 day).

Tex. Elec. Code Ann. § 86.007 (West 2013).

Texas does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

Texas provides in-person early voting to all eligible voters before election day. The early voting period begins 17 days before the election and ends 4 days before the election (10 days).

If the period begins on a Saturday, Sunday, or legal state holiday, the early voting period begins on the next regular business day.

Early voting shall be conducted on the weekdays of the early voting period and during the hours that the county clerk's or city secretary's main business office is regularly open for business. In a county with a population of 100,000 or more, voting shall be conducted at the main early voting polling place for at least 12 hours on each weekday of the last week of the early voting period. The entity conducting the election may order early voting by personal appearance at the main early voting polling place to be conducted on 1 or more Saturdays or Sundays during the early voting period.

Tex. Elec. Code Ann. § 85.001 - 85.006 (West 2013).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 7:00 pm (12 hours).

A voter who is inside or waiting in line to enter a polling place at 7 p.m. is entitled to vote. Polls may close before 7:00 p.m. if the entity has fewer than 50 qualified voters and the number of ballots cast equals the number of qualified voters.

Tex. Elec. Code Ann. § 41.031-41.033 (West 2013).

Texas requires voters to provide personal identification with a photo before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • Texas driver license or personal identification card issued by the Department of Public Safety (DPS)
  • Texas Election Identification Certificate issued by DPS
  • Texas license to carry a handgun issued by DPS
  • U.S. military identification card containing the person’s photograph
  • U.S. citizenship certificate containing the person’s photograph
  • U.S. passport

Voters who do not possess an acceptable form of photo ID and cannot obtain one of the forms of acceptable photo ID listed due to a reasonable impediment, may present a supporting form of ID and execute a Reasonable Impediment Declaration, noting the voter’s reasonable impediment to obtaining an acceptable form of ID.

Supporting forms of ID include:

  • Valid voter registration certificate
  • Certified birth certificate (must be an original)
  • Copy of or original current utility bill
  • Copy of or original bank statement
  • Copy of or original government check
  • Copy of or original paycheck
  • Copy of or original government document with your name and an address (original required if it contains a photograph)

If a voter possesses an acceptable form of photo ID but does not have it at the polling place, the voter will still be permitted to vote provisionally. The voter will have 6 days to present an acceptable form of photo identification to the county voter registrar or the voter’s ballot will be rejected.

Voters with a disability who do not have an acceptable form of photo ID may also apply with the county voter registrar for a permanent exemption.

Texas' voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

Tex. Elec. Code Ann. §§ 63.001, 63.0101 (West 2013).

Electioneering within 100 feet of a polling place is prohibited.

Electioneering includes the posting, use, or distribution of political signs or literature.

A person commits an offense if, during the voting period and within 1,000 feet of a building in which a polling place is located, the person operates a sound amplification device or a vehicle with a loudspeaker while the device or loudspeaker is being used for the purpose of: making a political speech; or electioneering for or against any candidate, measure, or political party.

Tex. Elec. Code Ann. § 61.003-61.004 (West 2013).

Utah

The Utah Lieutenant Governor is an elected position and the states primary election officer for statewide ballots and elections.

Utah Code Ann. 20A-1-102(23)

No, Utah does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Utah offers same day and election day voter registration during the early voting period and on election day at early voting locations and polling places. Same day registration voters may register to vote and submit a ballot via provisional ballot. Voters must provide valid voter identification and proof of residency, and the provisional ballot is counted at canvass if the voter has met the required qualifications.

Otherwise, voter registration applications must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than 11 days before the election.

Utah Code Ann. §§ 20A-3a-601, 20A-2-102.5 (2020).

In Utah, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of prison time.

Utah Code Ann. § 20A-2-101.5 (2013).

Yes, Utah conducts all-mail elections.

Every voter receives a mail-in ballot by default. Voters may submit completed ballots by mail or deposit them at designated drop sites and polling locations. In-person voting is available to all voters at designated polling locations.

Utah Code Ann. § 20A-3a-202 (2020).

Utah conducts all-mail elections, which means voters do not need to request a ballot, and instead automatically receive one. Therefore, the state allows no-excuse absentee voting.

Utah Code Ann. §20A-3a-202 (2020).

Utah conducts all-mail elections, which means voters do not need to request a ballot, and instead automatically receive one. If needed, a voter must provide an alternate address request form to the election officer no later than 11 days before the day of the election in order to receive a ballot.

Utah Code Ann. § 20A-3a-202 (2020).

Utah does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

The back of the return envelope is printed with an affidavit which must be signed by the voter. The ballot will not be counted if the signature on the affidavit does not match the signature on file with the election officer of the individual to whom the ballot was sent.

Utah Code Ann. §20A-3a-202

Absentee ballots must be postmarked by the day before election day and received no later than noon on the day of the county canvass (7-14 days depending on the county) for that election.

Utah Code Ann. § 20A-3a-204 (2020).

Utah conducts all-mail elections with no early in-person voting options, which means voters will automatically receive a ballot to return by mail.

Additionally, Utah allows voters to place the return envelope in a ballot drop box, designated by the election officer, for the precinct where the voter resides before the polls close on election day.

Utah Code Ann. § 20A-3a-204 (2020).

Utah conducts all-mail elections with early in-person voting options, which means voters will automatically receive a ballot to return by mail or drop off in-person at voting centers.

Early in-person voting begins 14 days before an election in Utah. Early voting ends on the Friday before an election (an election official has the authority to change this) (10 days total of early in-person voting). Ballot deposit sites should be open at least four days per week. The election officer may elect to conduct early voting on a Saturday, Sunday, or holiday.

Utah Code Ann. § 20A-3-601 (2020).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 8:00 pm (13 hours).

Utah Code Ann. 20A-1-302 (2020).

Utah requires voters to provide personal identification before voting at the polls. Utah holds elections by mail, so this law impacts only voters who choose to vote in person on election day.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • a valid Utah driver's license,
  • a valid ID card issued by the state or federal government,
  • Utah concealed weapon permit,
  • a U.S. passport,
  • a valid military ID,
  • a Bureau of Indian Affairs card,
  • a tribal treaty card, a tribal ID card, or
  • two forms of ID that bear the name of the voter and provide evidence that the voter resides in the precinct.

Voters who do not present a required photo ID may cast a provisional ballot. Those who cast a provisional ballot for this reason must present valid voter identification to the county clerk or an election officer who is administering the election by the close of normal office hours on Monday after the date of the election. If the voter does not do so, the provisional ballot will not be counted.

Utah's voter ID requirements are considered "strict" because voters without acceptable identification must vote on a provisional ballot and also take additional steps after election day for it to be counted.

Utah Code Ann. § 20A-1-102 (2020).

Electioneering within 150 feet of the polling place building is prohibited. An individual may not do any electioneering; circulate cards or handbills of any kind; solicit signatures to any kind of petition; or engage in any practice that interferes with the freedom of voters to vote or disrupts the administration of the polling place.

Utah Code Ann. § 20A-3a-501 (2020).

Vermont

The Secretary of State is an elected office in Vermont. The Secretary of State is the chief State election official for purposes of the National Voter Registration Act of 1993.

17 V.S.A. § 2103

Yes, Vermont implemented an automatic voter registration system in 2017 via legislation. Eligible voters in Vermont are automatically registered to vote in the state when they complete an application for, or renewal of, a motor vehicle driver's license or nondriver identification card with the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV). DMV customers may choose to opt-out of the automatic registration during the transaction with the DMV.

Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 17, § 2145a (2019).

Vermont offers same day and election day voter registration. Eligible persons may register to vote on any day up to and including the day of the election. Voters may register in person at their polling place, by mail as long as it's received by election day, and online up until election day.

Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 17, § 2144 (2017).

In Vermont, people convicted of a felony never lose their right to vote, even while they are incarcerated.

Vt. Const. ch. II, § XLII.

Effective June 7, 2021, SB 15 (2021), Vermont will conduct all-mail elections. For every general election, the Secretary of State’s office shall mail a general election ballot to all active voters. The mailing of the ballots shall commence not later than 43 days before the election and shall be completed not later than October 1.

Vermont allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any registered voter can vote absentee.

Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 17, § 2531 (2019).

Vermont conducts all-mail elections, which means voters do not need to request a ballot, and instead automatically receive one for each general election. The mailing of the ballots shall commence not later than 43 days before the election and shall be completed not later than October 1.

Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 17, § 2531 (2019).

Vermont does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Early or absentee ballots include a signing certificate on the outside of the provided envelope that the voter must sign.

Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 17, § 2542 (2017).

Absentee ballots must be returned to the town clerk’s office before the close of the office on the day before the election or to the polling place before 7 p.m. on the day of the election. Vermont does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 17, § 2543 (2017).

Vermont permits local election officials to provide ballot drop boxes.

A board of civil authority may vote to install one or more secure outdoor ballot drop boxes (drop boxes) for the return of voted ballots. Drop boxes must be located on municipal property. If a town has only one drop box, it must be located on the property of the municipal clerk’s office. Drop boxes will allow for the return of ballots by voters at any time of day and must be available for the return of ballots not later than 43 days before the election.

Ballots may be deposited in the drop boxes until the close of business on the day before the election.

Effective June 7, 2021, SB 15 (2021), the maximum number of drop boxes that the Secretary of State’s office shall provide in any town or city shall be as follows:

  • up to 5,000 registered voters, one;
  • between 5,000 and 10,000 registered voters, two;
  • between 10,000 and 15,000 registered voters, three;
  • between 15,000 and 20,000 registered voters, four; and
  • over 20,000 registered voters, five. A town or city may have a number of secure drop boxes equal to the number of representative districts in that town or city, with one drop box located in each district, if that number is greater than the number allowed based on that town or city’s number of registered voters.

Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 17, § 2506 (2021).

Vermont conducts all-mail elections with early in-person voting options, which means voters will automatically receive a ballot to return by mail or drop off in-person at voting centers beginning no less than 20 days before the election.

Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 17, § 2543 (2017).

On election day, polls are open for voting from no earlier than 5:00 am and no later than 10:00 am (as set by the board of civil authority in each town) to 7:00 pm (minimum of 9 hours and maximum of 14 hours).

Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 17, § 2561 (2017).

Vermont does not require registered voters to present identification documents at the polls. Before casting a ballot, voters must state their name and, if requested, address. The election official will then confirm that the voter is on the registration list.

If a person is a first-time voter in the municipality who registered by mail or online, whose driver's license, nondriver identification number, or last four digits of his or her Social Security number provided by the applicant have not been verified by the Secretary of State, and who has not provided required identification before the opening of the polls, the election officials will require the person to present any one of the following:

  • a valid photo identification;
  • a copy of a current utility bill;
  • a copy of a current bank statement; or
  • a copy of a government check, paycheck, or any other government document that shows the current name and address of the voter.

Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 17, § 2563 (2017).

During polling hours on election day, within the building containing a polling place, no campaign literature, stickers, buttons, name stamps, information on write-in candidates, or other political materials that display the name of a candidate on the ballot or an organized political party or that demonstrate support or opposition to a question on the ballot may be displayed, placed, handed out, or allowed to remain.

Within the building containing a polling place, no candidate, election official, or other person may distribute election materials, solicit voters regarding an item or candidate on the ballot, or otherwise campaign.

On the walks and driveways leading to a building in which a polling place is located, no candidate or other person may physically interfere with the progress of a voter to and from the polling place.

Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 17, § 2508 (2019).

Virginia

In Virginia, the Department of Elections, overseen by a Commissioner who is appointed by the Governor, is tasked with supporting accurate, fair, open and secure elections.

VA Department of Elections

VA Code 24.2-102

Yes, Virginia implemented an automatic voter registration system in 2021 via legislation. Eligible voters in Virginia are automatically registered to vote in the state when they complete an application for, or renewal of, a motor vehicle driver's license or special identification card with the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV). DMV customers may choose to opt-out of the automatic registration during the transaction with the DMV.

Va. Code Ann. § 24.2-411.3 (2020).

Virginia does not currently offer same day or election day voter registration. However, legislation effective Oct. 1, 2022, will allow any person who is qualified to in person up to and including the day of the election.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than 22 days before the election.

Va. Code Ann. § 24.2-420.1 (2020).

In Virginia, under the state constitution, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. These individuals cannot regain the right to vote unless restored by the governor.

On March 16, 2021, Governor Ralph Northam took executive action to restore the right to vote to all Virginians who are not currently incarcerated, and he has stated his intention of continuing this practice going forward for all Virginians upon their release from prison.

In effect, as long as the governor's office continues this practice on a rolling basis, a person convicted of a felony in Virginia will have their right to register to vote restored upon completion of their prison time and executive action by the governor.

Additionally, the state's legislature has taken the first step to amend the Virginia Constitution to make restoration of voting rights automatic for individuals convicted of a felony that have completed their prison terms. In 2021, lawmakers passed legislation (HJ 555) to make these constitutional changes, however, the bill must pass the legislature again during next year's legislative session as well as win approval from the voters in a statewide referendum before the constitutional amendment can go into effect.

Va. Const. art. II, § I.

No, Virginia does not conduct all-mail elections.

Virginia allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any registered voter may vote by absentee ballot.

Va. Code Ann. § 24.2-700.

In Virginia, applications for absentee ballots must be received online or by mail no later than 5:00 pm 11 days before the election. In person applications must be received 3 days before election day.

Va. Code Ann. § 24.2-701 (2020); see also the Virginia Department of Elections website.

Virginia does not require a copy of voter identification but does require the signature of a witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Voters must sign a statement on the back of the return envelope in the presence of a witness, who must also sign.

Va. Code Ann. §§ 24.2-706, 24.2-707.

Absentee ballots must be postmarked by election day and received no later than noon 3 days after the election.

Va. Code Ann. § 24.2-709 (2020).

Effective July 1, 2021, SB 1245 (2021), Virginia requires that counties and cities make ballot drop boxes available at the office of the general registrar and each voter satellite office in operation for an election.

On the day of the election, there shall also be a drop-off location at each polling place in operation for the election. The general registrar may establish additional drop-off locations within the county or city as he deems necessary.

Not later than 55 days prior to any election, the general registrar shall post notice of the sites of the drop-off locations in the locality in the office of the general registrar and on the official website of the county or city.

Absentee ballots shall be collected at least daily by two officers of election or electoral board members representing the two major political parties where practicable or (two employees from the office of the general registrar, unless the drop-off location is in the office of the general registrar, in which case the general registrar or an assistant general registrar may collect the absentee ballots.

Va. Code Ann. § 24.2-707.1; Ch. 522 of 2021 Laws (SB 1245).

Virginia provides "in-person absentee" voting before election day at the office of the general registrar. Virginia allows no-excuse absentee voting, but an elector wishing to vote early in person must apply for and receive an absentee ballot prior to doing so (which can be done at the early voting location).

The in-person absentee period begins 45 days before the election and ends at 5:00 pm the Saturday before the election. In-person absentee voting must be available a minimum of 8 hours between 8:00 am and 5:00 pm on the two Saturdays before the election. Under HB 1968 (2021), local election officials may offer voting on Sundays as well.

Va. Code Ann. § 24.2-701.1 (2020).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 6:00 am to 7:00 pm (13 hours).

Va. Code Ann. § 24.2-603 (2020).

Virginia requires voters to provide personal identification before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • Voter confirmation documents
  • Valid United States passport
  • Valid Virginia driver's license or ID card
  • Any valid student ID
  • Any other identification card issued by a government agency of the commonwealth, one of its political subdivisions, or the United States
  • Employee identification card containing a photograph of the voter and issued by an employer of the voter in the ordinary course of the employer’s business
  • Copy of current utility bill, bank statement, government check, paycheck, or other government document containing voter's name and address

A voter who does not show one of the forms of ID specified shall be allowed to vote a regular ballot after signing a statement under penalty of perjury verifying their identity. A voter who does not show ID or sign a statement shall be offered a provisional ballot.

Virginia's voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

Va. Code Ann. § 24.2-643 (2020).

During the times the polls are open and ballots are being counted, it shall be unlawful for any person

  • to loiter or congregate within 40 feet of any entrance of any polling place;
  • within such distance to give, tender, or exhibit any ballot, ticket, or other campaign material to any person or to solicit or in any manner attempt to influence any person in casting his vote; or
  • to hinder or delay a qualified voter in entering or leaving a polling place.

Va. Code Ann. § 24.2-604 (2020).

Washington

The secretary of state through the election division shall be the chief election officer for all federal, state, county, city, town, and district elections that are subject to this title. The secretary of state shall keep records of elections held for which he or she is required by law to canvass the results, make such records available to the public upon request, and coordinate those state election activities required by federal law.

WA Elec. Law 29A.04.230

Yes, Washington implemented an automatic voter registration system in 2019 via legislation. Eligible voters in Washington are automatically registered to vote in the state when they interact with the department of licensing to apply for, renew, or submit a change of address for a driver's license or identifcard or when registering with the health benefit exchange. The governor has the discretion to add additional state agencies to the automatic voter registration system. Individuals may choose to opt-out of the automatic registration during the transaction with the state agency.

Wash. Rev. Code §§ 29A.08.355, 29A.08.362, 29A.08.365 (2018).

Washington offers same day and election day voter registration up to and including election day at the voter's county auditor's office, the division of elections if in a separate city from the county auditor's office, a voting center, or other location designated by the county auditor in his or her county of residence no later than 8:00pm on the day of the election.

Otherwise, voter registration applications must be received no later than 8 days before the election.

Wash. Rev. Code § 29A.08.140 (2020).

In Washington, currently, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their full sentence, including prison time, parole, and probation.

Effective Jan. 1, 2022 (HB 1078 (2021)), a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their prison time.

Wash. Rev. Code § 29A.08.520 (2021).

Yes, Washington conducts all-mail elections.

Each active registered voter of the state, overseas voter, and service voter shall automatically be issued a mail ballot for each general election, special election, or primary. Each active registered voter shall continue to receive a ballot by mail until the death or disqualification of the voter, cancellation of the voter's registration, or placing the voter on inactive status.

Wash. Rev. Code § 29A.40.010 (2013).

Washington conducts all-mail elections, which means voters do not need to request a ballot, and instead automatically receive one. Therefore, the state allows no-excuse absentee voting.

Wash. Rev. Code § 29A.40.010 (2013).

Washington conducts all-mail elections, which means voters do not need to request a ballot, and instead automatically receive one.

Wash. Rev. Code § 29A.40.010 (2013).

Washington does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

The voter must sign a declaration on the return envelope declaring that the voter meets the qualifications to vote and has not voted in any other jurisdiction during this election.

Wash. Rev. Code § 29A.40.091 (2020); see also Wash. Rev. Code § 29A.40.110 (2011).

Absentee ballots must be postmarked by election day and received no later than 5 days after the election.

Wash. Rev. Code § 29A.40.091 (2020).

Washington conducts all-mail elections with no early in-person voting options, which means voters will automatically receive a ballot to return by mail.

Additionally, Washington requires local election officials to establish drop boxes for voters to deliver their ballots in person.

Drop boxes must be located at each voting center and at least one other location. There must be at least one drop box per 15,000 registered voters in the county and at least one drop box in each city, town, and place with a post office. There must be at least one ballot drop box on an Indian reservation at a site selected by the tribe and accessible by a public road.

The county auditor must prevent overflow of each ballot drop box to allow a voter to deposit his or her ballot securely. Ballots must be removed from a ballot drop box by at least two people, with a record kept of the date and time ballots were removed, and the names of people removing them. Ballots from drop boxes must be returned to the counting center in secured transport containers. A copy of the record must be placed in the container, and one copy must be transported with the ballots to the counting center, where the seal number must be verified by the county auditor or a designated representative. All ballot drop boxes must be secured at 8:00 p.m. on the day of the primary, special election, or general election.

Wash. Rev. Code § 29A.40.170 (2020).

Washington conducts all-mail elections with early in-person voting options, which means voters will automatically receive a ballot to return by mail or drop off in-person at voting centers beginning 15 days before the election (may vary by county).

The voting center shall be open during business hours during the voting period, which begins 18 days before and ends at 8:00 p.m. on the day of the election.

Wash. Rev. Code § 29A.40.160 (2020).

Washington is an all-mail voting state. The voting center shall be open during business hours during the voting period, which begins 18 days before and ends at 8:00 p.m. on the day of the election.

Wash. Rev. Code § 29A.40.160 (2020).

Washington requires voters to provide personal identification before voting at the polls. Washington holds elections by mail, so this law impacts only voters who choose to vote in person on election day.

The identification must be valid photo identification, such as a driver's license, state identification card, student identification card, tribal identification card, or employer identification card. A tribal identification card is not required to include a residential address or an expiration date to be considered valid under this section.

Any individual who desires to vote in person but cannot provide identification shall be issued a provisional ballot, which shall be accepted if the signature on the declaration matches the signature on the voter's registration record.

Washington's voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

Wash. Rev. Code § 29A.40.160 (2020).

During the voting period that begins 18 days before and ends the day of a special election, general election, or primary, no person may:

Within a voting center:

  • Suggest or persuade or attempt to suggest or persuade any voter to vote for or against any candidate or ballot measure;
  • Circulate cards or handbills of any kind;
  • Solicit signatures to any kind of petition; or
  • Engage in any practice which interferes with the freedom of voters to exercise their franchise or disrupts the administration of the voting center;

Obstruct the doors or entries to a building in which a voting center or ballot drop location is located or prevent free access to and from any voting center or ballot drop location.

Wash. Rev. Code § 29A.84.510 (2020).

Washington, D.C.

The D.C. Board of Elections is responsible for the administration of elections, ballot access, and voter registration. The Board is made up of three active Board members, an Executive Director, a General Counsel, and support staff.

D.C. Board of Elections

Yes, Washington, D.C., implemented an automatic voter registration system in 2018 via legislation. Eligible voters in D.C. are automatically registered to vote in the state when applying for or renewing identification from the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV). DMV customers may choose to opt-out of the automatic registration during the transaction with the DMV.

D.C. Code § 1–1001.07 (2021).

Washington, D.C., offers election day voter registration at any voting location during the early voting period, and precinct polling place on election day. Individuals may register during the really voting period and on election day. Proof of residency is required.

Otherwise, for in-person registration, applications are due the day before the start of early voting. To register by mail or online, the application must be received 21 days before election day.

D.C. Code § 1-1001.07 (2021).

In Washington, D.C., people convicted of a felony never lose their right to vote, even while they are incarcerated.

D.C. Act 23-336: Comprehensive Policing and Justice Reform Second Emergency Amendment Act of 2020.

No, Washington, D.C., does not conduct all-mail elections.

Washington, D.C., allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any registered DC voter may apply for an absentee ballot and vote by mail.

D.C. Mun. Regs. tit. 3, § 720 (2018).

In Washington, D.C., applications for absentee ballots must be received online, or by mail no later than 7 days before the election.

D.C. Mun. Regs. tit. 3, §720 (2018).

Washington, D.C., does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

An absentee ballot shall be counted provided that the voter signs the absentee ballot envelope to certify that the voter has voted the ballot and has not voted in any other jurisdiction or in any other manner in the election.

D.C. Mun. Regs. § 3-720 (2018).

Absentee ballots must be postmarked by election day and received no later than 7 days after the election.

D.C. Mun. Regs. § 3-702 (2018); see also D.C. Code § 1-1001.05(a)(10A) (2021).

Washington, D.C., does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

Washington, D.C., provides in-person early voting to all eligible voters before election day. The early voting period begins 7 days before the election and ends on the Saturday before the election (5 days).

D.C. also provides "in-person absentee" voting before election day, which begins 15 days before the election and ends on the day before the election.

The Executive Director designates the specific dates and times.

D.C. Mun. Regs. § 3-702 (2018).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 8:00 pm (13 hours).

Everyone who is in line to vote before the close of polls will be permitted to vote.

D.C. Mun. Regs. § 3-703 (2018).

Washington, D.C., does not require registered voters to present identification documents at the polls. Before casting a ballot, voters must state their name and sign the poll book.

D.C. Mun. Regs. § 3-700 (2018).

Political activity (defined as any activity intended to persuade a person to vote for or against any candidate or measure or to desist from voting) is prohibited within 50 feet from any door used to enter the building for voting.

West Virginia

The Secretary of State holds authority over West Virginia elections and voting.

W. Va. Code, § 3-1-3a

Yes, West Virginia implemented an automatic voter registration system in 2019 via legislation. Eligible voters in West Virginia are automatically registered to vote in the state when they complete an application for the issuance, renewal, or change of address of a motor vehicle driver’s license or official identification card with the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV). DMV customers may choose to opt-out of the automatic registration during the transaction with the DMV.

W. Va. Code § 3-2-11 (1994).

West Virginia does not offer same day or election day voter registration.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked, submitted online, or in person no later than 21 days before the election (or on the first day thereafter which is not a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday).

W. Va. Code § 3-2-6 (2020).

In West Virginia, a person convicted of treason, a felony, or bribery in an election felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their full sentence, including prison time, parole, and probation.

W. Va. Code §§ 3-1-3, 3-2-2 (2020).

No, West Virginia does not conduct all-mail elections.

West Virginia requires an excuse for not voting on election day in order to request an absentee ballot.

Voters are eligible to cast an absentee ballot if they are subject to certain kinds of confinement, absent from the state due to employment or education, deployed by the military, required to dwell out of state for certain employment assignments, or party to the Address Confidentiality Program.

W. Va. Code, § 3-3-1 (2020).

In West Virginia, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person, online, or by mail no later than 6 days before the election.

W. Va. Code § 3-3-5 (2021).

West Virginia does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

After filling out their ballot, voters are required to sign the forms on envelope no. 2. Ballots submitted electronically must also include a signed privacy waiver form.

W. Va. Code § 3-3-5 (2020).

Absentee ballots must be postmarked by election day and received no later than the hour at which the board of canvassers convenes to begin the canvass.

W. Va. Code § 3-3-5 (2020).

West Virginia does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

West Virginia provides in-person early voting to all eligible voters before election day. The early voting period begins 13 days before the election and ends 3 days before the election (10 days).

Early in-person voting is to be available from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. on Saturdays during the early voting period.

W. Va. Code § 3-3-3 (2020).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 6:30 am to 7:30 pm (13 hours).

W. Va. Code § 3-1-31 (2020).

West Virginia requires voters to provide personal identification before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • Driver's license
  • Student ID
  • Military ID
  • Bank statement
  • West Virginia Supplemental Nutrition Assistance (SNAP) card
  • Utility bill

A document shall be deemed to be a valid identifying document if it was issued by the US Government, the state of West Virginia, or a political subsidiary and contains the name of the person desiring to vote.

If the person desiring to vote is unable to furnish a valid identifying document, or if the poll clerk determines that the proof of identification presented by the voter does not qualify as a valid identifying document, the person desiring to vote shall be permitted to cast a provisional ballot after executing an affidavit affirming his or her identity.

The provisional ballot is entitled to be counted once the election authority verifies the identity of the individual by comparing that individual’s signature to the current signature on file with the election authority and determines that the individual was otherwise eligible to cast a ballot at the polling place where the ballot was cast.

West Virginia's voter ID requirements are considered "non-strict" because at least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter.

W. Va. Code § 3-1-34 (2020).

Electioneering is prohibited in polling places, early polling locations, or within 100 feet of the outside entrance of either.

Electioneering is defined as displaying of signs or other campaign paraphernalia, the distribution of campaign literature, cards, or handbills, the soliciting of signatures to any petition, or the solicitation of votes for or against any bona fide candidate or ballot question in a manner which expressly advocates the election or defeat of the candidate or expressly advocates the passage or defeat of the ballot question.

W. Va. Code § 3-9-9 (2020).

Wisconsin

The state elections commission has authority over state elections.

W.S.A. 5.05

No, Wisconsin does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Wis. Stat. §§ 6.28, 6.30 (2015).

Wisconsin offers election day voter registration at the precinct polling place where the voter resides. All individuals must provide both a proof of residency document and proof of identification document to register on election day.

Otherwise, registration in person for an election closes at 5 p.m. on the 3rd Wednesday (20 days) preceding the election. Registrations made by mail must be delivered to the office of the municipal clerk or postmarked no later than the 3rd Wednesday preceding the election. Electronic registration for an election closes at 11:59 p.m. on the 3rd Wednesday preceding the election.

Wis. Stat. §§ 6.28, 6.29 (2015).

In Wisconsin, a person convicted of a felony loses voting rights during incarceration. The right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their full sentence, including prison time, parole, and probation.

Wis. Stat. § 6.03 (2003); Wis. Stat. § 304.078 (2015).

No, Wisconsin does not conduct all-mail elections.

Wis. Stat. § 6.77 (1985).

Wisconsin allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any eligible voter who is unable or unwilling to appear in person at the polls is permitted to request an absentee ballot.

An elector who is indefinitely confined because of age, physical illness or infirmity or is disabled for an indefinite period may request to be sent an automatic absentee ballot for each election.

Wis. Stat. §§ 6.85, 6.86 (2017).

In Wisconsin, applications for absentee ballots must be received no later than 5 days before the election.

Wis. Stat. § 6.86 (2014).

Wisconsin does not require a copy of voter identification but does require the signature of a witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Proof of identification is required at the time of the absentee application. Further proof of identification is not required when the absentee ballot is cast.

Absentee ballots must be signed. An elector voting absentee, other than a military elector or an overseas elector, shall make and subscribe to the certification before one witness who is an adult U.S. citizen. The witness to a military elector need not be a U.S. citizen. Absentee voters casting a ballot from a residential care facility may only be witnessed by designated voting deputies.

Wis. Stat. § 6.87 (2017); see also Wis. Stat. § 6.875 (2015).

Absentee ballots must be received by 8:00 pm on election day. Wisconsin does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Wis. Stat. § 6.87 (2017).

Wisconsin does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

Wis. Stat. § 6.855 (2017).

Wisconsin provides "in-person absentee" voting before election day at the clerks’ offices. Wisconsin allows no-excuse absentee voting, but an elector wishing to vote early in person must apply for and receive an absentee ballot prior to doing so.

An elector can vote absentee at their local municipal clerk's office. If the elector applies for an absentee ballot in their municipal clerk's office, or another designated location for in-person absentee voting, they will vote their ballot immediately in the clerk's office, seal the ballot in the proper envelope, and return it to a member of the clerk's staff. No ballots may be taken out of the clerk's office. The elector will need to show your acceptable photo ID for voting when voting by in-person absentee ballot.

The in-person absentee period begins at least 14 days before the election and ends as late as the Sunday before the election.

Wis. Stat. § 6.88 (2017).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 8:00 pm (13 hours).

Wis. Stat § 6.78 (2017).

Wisconsin requires all voters to provide personal identification with a photo before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • Wisconsin driver's license
  • ID card issued by a U.S. uniformed service
  • Wisconsin nondriver ID
  • U.S. Passport
  • Certificate of naturalization issued not more than two years before the election
  • ID card issued by a federally recognized -Indian tribe in Wisconsin
  • Student ID card with a signature, an issue date, and an expiration date no later than two years after the election
  • Photo ID card provided by the Veteran's Health Administration

An elector who appears to vote at a polling place and does not have statutory ID shall be offered the opportunity to vote a provisional ballot.

An elector who votes a provisional ballot may furnish statutory ID to the election inspectors before the polls close or to the municipal clerk no later than 4:00 pm on the Friday following the election.

Wisconsin's voter ID requirements are considered "strict" because voters without acceptable identification must vote on a provisional ballot and also take additional steps after election day for it to be counted.

Wis. Stat. § 6.79 (2019).

Electioneering is prohibited within 100 feet of an entrance to a building containing a polling place during poll hours, the entrance to a building containing the municipal clerk's office or an alternate site during absentee voting hours, or entrance to or within a qualified retirement home or residential care facility while special voting deputies are present at the home or facility.

"Electioneering" is defined as any activity which is intended to influence voting at an election.

Wis. Stat. § 12.03 (2013).

Wyoming

The secretary of state is the chief election officer for the state and shall maintain uniformity in the applications and operations of the election laws of Wyoming. Each county clerk is the chief election officer for the county.

Wy. Stat. § 22-2-103

No, Wyoming does not have an automatic voter registration system in place.

Wyoming offers election day voter registration at the polling place or vote center. Applicants may vote a regular ballot if they are able to provide proof of identity and residency. If they are unable to provide proof of identity and residency, they will cast a provisional ballot.

Application for voter registration must be postmarked or submitted in person no later than 14 days before the election. Wyoming prefers that people register to vote in person at the county clerk's office. If this isn't possible, voters must print out the Wyoming Voter Registration form and fill it out in front of a notary. Wyoming Voter Registration Form must be notarized.

Wyoming does not offer an online registration form, you must fill out a paper voter registration application.

Wyo. Stat. Ann. §§ 22-3-102, -103, -104 (2020).

In Wyoming, a person convicted of a signal non-violent felony loses voting rights during incarceration. For those convicted after 2010, the right to register to vote is restored upon completion of their full sentence, including prison time, parole, and probation. For those convicted before 2010, the individuals must apply to the Wyoming Department of Corrections for restoration of voting rights.

A person convicted of multiple felonies or a violent felony loses voting rights and cannot regain the right to vote unless restored by the governor by applying for restoration after a 5-year waiting period.

Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 6-10-106 (2020).

No, Wyoming does not conduct all-mail elections.

Wyoming allows no-excuse absentee voting. Any qualified elector may vote by absentee ballot.

Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 22-9-102 (2020).

In Wyoming, applications for absentee ballots must be received in person or by mail no later than 1 day before the election (but 7 days is recommended).

Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 22-9-105 (2020).

Wyoming does not require a copy of voter identification or a signature of a notary or witness on the return envelope of an absentee ballot.

Absentee voters sign an oath on the return ballot envelope.

Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 22-9-121 (2020).

Absentee ballots must be received by the time the polls close on election day. Wyoming does not accept postmarked ballots that arrive after election day.

Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 22-9-119 (2020).

Wyoming does not permit ballot drop boxes. Absentee ballots should be mailed or delivered to the office that issued the ballot.

Wyoming provides "in-person absentee" voting before election day at an absentee polling place. Wyoming allows no-excuse absentee voting, but an elector wishing to vote early in person must request an absentee ballot prior to doing so.

An absentee polling place may be established in the courthouse or other public building which is equipped to accommodate voters from all districts and precincts within the county and shall be open the same hours as the courthouse on normal business days during the time period allowed for absentee voting. The in-person absentee period begins no more than 45 days before the election and ends the day before the election.

Wyo. Stat. Ann. §§ 22-9-107, 22-9-119, 22-9-125 (2020).

On election day, polls are open for voting from 7:00 am to 7:00 pm (12 hours).

Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 22-13-101 (2020).

Effective July 1, 2021 (HB 75 (2021), Wyoming requires all voters to provide personal identification before voting at the polls.

The following are acceptable forms of personal identification to vote:

  • a Wyoming driver's license;
  • a tribal identification card;
  • a Wyoming identification card;
  • a valid United State passport;
  • a United States military card;
  • a driver's license or identification card from another state;
  • photo identification issued by the University of Wyoming, community college, or public school;
  • a valid Medicare insurance card;
  • a valid Medicaid insurance card

If a person is unable to present acceptable identification immediately before voting at the polling place or absentee polling place, the person may vote by provisional ballot.

Wyoming's voter ID requirements are considered "strict" because voters without acceptable identification must vote on a provisional ballot and also take additional steps after election day for it to be counted.

Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 22-1-102 (2021).

Electioneering too close to a polling place or absentee polling place when voting is being conducted, consists of any form of campaigning, including the display of campaign signs or distribution of campaign literature, the soliciting of signatures to any petition, or the canvassing or polling of voters, except exit polling by news media, within 100 yards on the day of a primary, general or special election and within 100 feet on all other days, of any public entrance to the building in which the polling place is located.

Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 22-26-113 (2020).